Nadene Goldfoot 1801-Jews Living in part of Pale of Settlement
"Despite its strong initial influence, there is little evidence that the Khazar Jewish population survived in Ukraine after the Tatar invasion of the 1200's." " Kiev in particular shows significant evidence of Khazar settlement, and the city may in fact have been founded by the Khazars as a trading outpost. Khazaria was strong in the 700's.
In 1801 there were 18 Jewish merchants and 292 towns-men that were Jews or 1/5th of the small population of Poltava, Ukraine.
By 1847 there were 2,073 Jews.
|Jewish man in home and Cossacks|
Jews came to Poltava, Ukraine at the end of the 18th century. In 1897 there were 11,046 Jews or 20.5% of the total population. Many of them had come from Lithuania and Belo-russia (Belarus). This is when so many Jews were immigrating to the United States from "Russia."
In 1881 by Spring, pogroms happened in the north of the province of Poltava.
In 1905 many porgroms swept across 52 shtetles of the province. The most affected were Gadyach, Kremenchug, Romny and Zolotonosha.
|Synagogue in Poltava, Ukraine|
|Rabbis at a funeral|
1914-1917 was World War I and thousands of refugees and Jews were expelled from the battle zone so came to Poltava and found refuge in the Jewish communities.
By 1926 there were about 93,000 Jews in the 5 districts of the former territory of the province of Poltava.
Until 1927, Poltava was the center for printing Jewish religious books like siddurim and calendars.
|1926 Musicians in Ukraine|
There were 18,476 (20.1%) Jews in Poltava in 1926.
In 1926 there were 9,000 Jewish workers of which this was found:
2,415 were white collar workers
1,862 were craftsmen
1,676 were simple laborers. Many were occupied in the large sock factory making socks for all of the Soviet Union.
80% of the artisan union were Jewish.
|Railway Station in Poltava|
1939 saw a drop in the Jewish population because of the Nazi growth in Germany and had dropped to 112,860 which was now only 10% of the total population. Some Jews had immigrated either to Palestine or to the USA.
Ukraine had 3 million Jews before WWII broke out. Ukraine was then under Nazi rule, and if they couldn't escape to Russia, they were wiped out in 1941 and 1942 by the invading Germans and the home town Ukrainians. .
1941, September 18th and the Germany entered the city. Many Jews had already been evacuated or escaped. Jews remaining had to register.
September 25th, 5,000 Jews were murdered.
November 23rd, another registration was ordered and 3,000 Jews were then executed.
Now Jews evaded registration or hid and were caught and executed.
|Only Churches Are Seen|
There still is the Jewish cemetery remaining in Poltava , and also 2 mass graves of martyrs murdered by the Nazis. One holds 13,000 bodies and the other 7,000. Monuments do not list all the victims nor does it mention that they were Jews.
Ukraine's Jewish population in 1970 was 777,126
1989 the Jewish population had dropped to 484,129.
|Poltava Jewish School in Vegetable Garden before 1917|
1. 1864 was Herman Rosenthal, who established a printing-office there in 1869, and organized a circle of Maskilim, 2. Eliezer Schulmann,
3. J. S. Olschwang,
4. L. and M. Jakobovich,
5. M. Silberberg (see Zederbaum, "Massa Ereẓ," in "Ha-Meliẓ," 1869, No. 1).
6. Rosenthal published the first work of M. Morgulis
7. Rabbi Joseph b. Elijah Tumarkin, who died there in 1875. After his death the Mitnaggedim elected Meïr Löb Malbim as rabbi, but he died while on his way to assume the position (Sept., 1879), and the candidate of the Ḥasidim of Lubavich, 8. Hirsch Tumarkin, the brother and son-in-law of Meïr's predecessor, was elected to the position. The government rabbis were
9. Freidus (1865), Mochan (1867-71), a son-in-law of Seidener of Melitopol, Ch. Berliner, and
10. Freidenberg (who was reelected in 1899).
11. (1905) rabbi was Isaac Joel Raphalovich."
Alternate names: Poltava [Rus, Ukr, Yid], Połtawa [Pol], Poltawa [Ger], Pułtawa