Thursday, January 11, 2018

When 600,000 Jews Were Exiled By Russia: A People Without Rights


Nadene Goldfoot                                       
Russian Armed Forces
WWI began July 28, 1914 and ended November 11, 1917.  At the start, 600,000 Jews were exiled from their homes and couldn't return.  
                                                                         
1900 Lithuanian Shtetl , by 1914
Jews were dispossessed and forced to
wander and suffered from starvation
From 1914 to 1915, Jews lived along the front lines of these territories.  600,000 Jews were then banished from their homes by the Russian Czarist army and not allowed to return.  They were charged with collaboration with the enemy which was false.   It just happens that 600,000 is the number that followed Moses from Egypt in the Exodus.  
                
Jewish teacher, more of a tutor in 19th Century Podalia
Podalia was a province of Ukraine, USSR.  Jews here suffered severely during the Russian Civil War from 1918 to 1920, a war after WWI.  By WWII, ts Jewish population was annihilated.
From 1941, Romanian Jews were also herded here and some 60,000 died.  The Russian army liberated them, helped 55,000 to survive.  

Modern Town & CountryOther Namesc. 1950
After WWII
Town / Country
c. 1930
Between Wars
Town / District /
Province / Country
c. 1900
Before WWI
Town / District /
Province / Country
# of JGFF
Entries
Podolia, UkrainePodolia [Eng], Podoliye [Rus], Podillia [Ukr], Podolye [Yid], Podole [Pol], Podolien [Ger], Podolya, Podilia, Podillya, Podolskaya Guberniya [Rus], Podolia Gubernia


Soviet Union



Soviet Union


Podolia
Russian Empire

                                                                               
Napoleon emancipated the Jews in 1791

Jews were not citizens of any country for a terribly long time.  Slowly, countries started to allow emancipation, but kept up the anti-Semitism and class distinction  in all areas.  
                                                                                     

USA:       1776: "The first country to emancipate the Jews was the United States. Jewish political inferiority during the colonial period before 1776, however, was not the result of a peculiar legal status. It derived rather from the Jews' belonging to the non-Protestant portion of the population, or in some colonies their nonmembership in one privileged Protestant denomination. Before the period of the American Revolution, Jews living in the colonies were generally ineligible for public office, owing to a Protestant form of oath which operated to exclude Catholics as well. There are instances where Jews entered public life nevertheless, perhaps by disregarding such forms. Jews were not limited in the rights of domicile, economic activity, or the practice of Judaism. Their full enjoyment of civil rights, together with the newness, foreignness, and minuscule numbers of colonial Jews, probably did not encourage them to seek the full political rights which they lacked."

France:  1791-first to give Jews emancipation in Europe.
Greece:  1830
Great Britain 1858-1890
Italy:  1870
Germany  1871
Norway  1891

Russia: 1921 "Before 1905, Russia was a feudal society wherein subjects contracted privileges from a sovereign.Pogroms continued to erupt as civil war engulfed Russia from 1918-1921. When the Bolsheviks emerged from civil war victorious, a new chapter in Russian Jewish history commenced–the subject of which was maintaining Judaism under communism.
                                                                     
There was the Jewish quota.  "After 1886, the Jewish quota was applied to education, with the percentage of Jewish students limited to no more than 10% within the Pale, 5% outside the Pale and 3% in the capitals of Moscow, St. Petersburg, and Kiev. The quotas in the capitals, however, were increased slightly in 1908 and 1915."

I note that through Lincoln, the USA emancipated Blacks in 1863.  They were freed of slavery.  Jews were not enslaved, but were not full citizens, either.
                                                         
Russians fighting Germans WWI
Eastern Europe has seen much fighting between countries vying for land by 1914.  Russia annexed land called the Duchy of Warsaw, making the Tsar of Russia also the King of Poland.  He had created Congress Poland through a treaty of 1815. This took in Volhynia, Lithuania and western Belorussia.  In reality, it was a puppet state of Russia.

Volhynia was "  a historic region in Central and Eastern Europe straddling PolandUkraine and Belarus."  Belorussia was "formerly known by its Russian name Byelorussia or Belorussia (RussianБелоруссия), and is a landlocked country in Eastern Europe  bordered by Russia to the northeast, Ukraine to the south, Poland to the west, and Lithuania and Latvia to the northwest."

"The concentration of Jews in the Pale, coupled with Tzar Alexander III's "fierce hatred of the Jews", and the rumors that Jews had been involved in the assassination of his father Tzar Alexander II made them easy targets for pogroms and anti-Jewish riots by the majority population."  It was a Catholic country, and not friendly as it was to Jews.  
                                                                       
Jewish  Lithuanian soldiers celebrating Passover WWI 
By Autumn of 1914 to the winter of 1915, the Russians took German-Austrian held Galicia.
Then Austria-Germany took over Congress Poland.
                                                                         
White Russian fighting Bolsheviks

Grant Arthur Gochin tells about his grandfather, Samuel, who was deported from his home at age 13.  He was forced by the Russians into the army at age 15.  Sam was taken to Byelorussia  (Belarus) to fight.  First, the White Russians took him, then the Red Russians had him, and then he fell back into the White Russian hands.  By 1918, Belarus was occupied by Germans, then the Poles took it over.  WWI ended in  1919 there.  He wasn't able to get back to his home in Lithuania until 1923.

Lithuanian Jews were exiled during WWI from 1914 to 1918.  Usually, they couldn't return due to the red tape presented to them just to keep them out.

October 1917 "100,000 Jews were killed in the anti‑Bolshevik campaigns conducted by Ukrainians, Poles, and Russians."

First came the Russian Revolution of February or March 1917, depending on the calendar used. Nicholas had to abdicate.  
                                                                   
Deported Jews
 The Russian Civil War lasted from  October 1917 – October 1922. " civil war erupted among the "Reds" (Bolsheviks), the "Whites" (counter-revolutionaries), the independence movements and the non-Bolshevik socialists. It continued for several years, during which the Bolsheviks defeated both the Whites and all rival socialists and thereafter reconstituted themselves as the Communist Party. In this way, the Revolution paved the way for the creation of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) in 1922.   Through all this, Jews had to fight, even young boys were forced to be on the front lines.
                                                           
         
The Pale of Settlement created by Catherine II of Russia existed from 1791 to 1917, the end of WWI.  "1791 to 1917,"The Pale of Settlement included all of BelarusLithuania and Moldova and much of present-day Ukraine, a part of eastern Latvia and some parts of western Russia, roughly corresponding to the modern western border of Russia. It extended from the eastern pale, or demarcation line, to the western Russian border with the Kingdom of Prussia (later the German Empire) and with Austria-Hungary. Furthermore, it comprised about 20% of the territory of European Russia and largely corresponded to historical lands of the former Polish–Lithuanian CommonwealthCossack Hetmanate, and the Ottoman Empire (with Crimean Khanate).
                                                                  

In other words, it was made up of 25 provinces of Czarist Russia 's hold on Poland, Lithuania, White Russia (Belorussia or Belarus) , Ukraine, Bessarabia (Romanian-Moldavian-Ukrainian Republics.) and Crimea.  This is where Jews were allowed to live.  Jews could not live outside this border unless they were special subjects given permission such as people who graduated from a high school, an important businessman, or a skilled well-known artist.  Since only 10% were allowed to become educated, this eliminated most Jews.  No wonder my Bubba was illiterate!  
                                                                     
Map of Poland
Permanent residency by Jews was allowed and beyond which Jewish permanent residency and in a certain period even temporary stay was mostly forbidden. However, Jews were excluded from residency in a number of cities within the Pale, and a limited number of categories of Jews—those ennobled, with university educations or at university, members of the most affluent of the merchant guilds and particular artisans, some military personnel and some services associated with them, as well as the families, and sometimes the servants of these—were allowed to live outside it."  The rumor I heard in our family was that a Goldfoot dealt in wheat and was allowed outside the Pale.  
                                                                         
The Pale of Settlement was abolished after the February Revolution in 1917, but like all other nationalities, the Jews suffered horrendously during the Civil War (1918 – 1921) when military factions from all sides robbed, harassed and murdered Jews with impunity.

Resource: Resource: http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/vjw/russia.html
https://www.myjewishlearning.com/article/wwi-and-the-jews/ 
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Congress_Poland
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pale_of_Settlement
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jewish_quota
Malice, Murder, and Manipulation by Grant Arthur Gochin
jewishgen.org 
http://www.jewishhistory.org.il/history.php?startyear=1910&endyear=1919
https://kehilalinks.jewishgen.org/shaki/shaki1.html

Friday, January 5, 2018

Personality of a Nation's Leaders

   Donald Trump, USA's 45th president.  Born June 14, 1946. A successful man in his own right.  Former Democrat who switched to Republican,  Net worth3.1 billion USD (2017) Forbes, Decided to not accept payment as president.  EducationWharton School of the University of Pennsylvania (1968), , a builder of hotels.                                                                          
Nadene Goldfoot
Andrew Johnson was Lincoln's Vice President and the country's next president for 4 years.  They had worked as a team ready to show the country they were ready to repair the land after the Civil War's destruction.  Johnson had no vice president when he became president.  He had been only the VP on the ticket.  


We have a leader who won against the odds after running with 17 other candidates and we have Johnson who got the position  because Abe Lincoln had been assassinated. Both leaders are facing similar problems as president.  Johnson was president after the Civil War.  The country was in shambles.  Trump is president after 8 years of Obama and Democratic rule with a former president's wife, Hillary, waiting to take over.  These are not normal times.  
                                                                         
Danny Eskow, MA, born in Brooklyn, New York
Little Theater: Miami, Florida
An Extrovert


My husband had some personality traits of a nation’s leader.  He had to be the leader of any group he belonged to; Kiwanis, Masons,  Oregon State Union, etc.  He knew instinctively what to do to organize people.  Pride in accomplishment was his reward.  These are traits needed in presidents of countries.  The ability to make friends easily, to speak and make known your ideas is necessary.  Being able to make decisions wisely and follow through with them is another skill.

Psychologists such as Timothy A. Judge decided on 5 points needed to be a leader.  "Judge looked at the prevalence of what are commonly known as "Big Five" personality traits —
 1. openness to experience, 
2. conscientiousness,
 3. extroversion
4. agreeableness, 
 5. neuroticism 

"Neuroticism was not a strong predictor of leadership, meaning that highly neurotic people are not especially likely or unlikely to become leaders."  But-its a trait found in many leaders.  Maybe we're all neurotic to some degree.  

  Evidently, being a leader is not for shy people.  To face all kinds of people, one has to be slightly different in order not to crack up.  
                                                      

Image result for how many hotels has Trump built?
"The seven Trump International Hotel and Tower developments). Trump has generated more than $74 million in real estate licensing deals and has $823.3 million worth of real estate in joint ventures ."
    
Is Trump neurotic?  "Self-deprecating comedians and complainers wear their neuroticism as a badge of honor. In truth, the negatively biased are more prone to depression, anxiety, self-consciousness and hypochondria, to name just a few behavioral tripwires." 

Neuroticism is no fun for anyone. The good news: all personality traits, including emotional instability, exist on a continuum, in this case from the very neurotic to the implacably stable. If you can laugh at your hang-ups, you're probably not that neurotic to begin with.

These traits are found among different types of leaders.   Among his findings: Extroversion is the strongest predictor of leadership and agreeableness is the weakest."

I've noticed such traits being an elementary school teacher of children from pre-schoolers up to junior high.  Every class has had its leaders and its very shy children.  Donald Trump was known to be a handful, something I've seen in very bright boys in the neighborhood.  Those who yelled a lot and could be heard turned out to be the brightest of the lot, not a pleasant quality but one that surprised me.  

You can see that Obama had problems in this.  He held back in his dealings with the Senators.  He wasn’t outgoing and friendly with everyone.  
                                                                                
His best skill was oratorical to large groups.  The tone of his voice and his vocabulary was impressive.  His skill in decision- making was not. As far as I was concerned, Israel was not important to him, as he showed his feelings about her on his last day in office by not backing her at the UN.  I never accepted his choice of friends, either, before he became president.  His church was as anti-Semitic as it's leader.  That's what his sermons were like.  He rubbed shoulders with former law breakers in Chicago.  His ethics were certainly being tested.  On the other hand, he's had one wife and two lovely daughters and has been a great dad, something many of us can't say, and he's left-handed like me. For that very reason, he should be a creative person.  I guess he was creative  to have become President.  
                                                                          
                                                                           
Now we have a man at the helm who was not trained from the same schools as Obama.  He’s unique in that he came from a military academy as a child because he was sent by his father who was possibly having control problems with him, a very rich family, the real-estate business as well as television production, so he has a different field of skills to rely on. He graduated from a college who's emphasis was on making money.   It’s not hurting.  He’s made decisions and carrying them out without faltering.  He won the position from 18 candidates for the job, which shows he had something others didn’t.  Mainly, it’s his ability to stay at the top and organize.   This is not something all people are born with.  What stood out for me was that he was pro-Israel, however at least 17 other Republicans were, also this time.  I would have been happy with any one of them.  Others were even more knowledgeable about why they defended Israel.  
                                                                                   

Those still suffering from PTSD of the shock of losing this position refuse to accept that he won and is doing a good job in fulfilling his promises to his voters.  They’re calling out that he is mentally incapable.  Really?  He’s incapable of getting drunk at a party and making all kinds of errors in that condition because he doesn’t drink at all, never has, something we can’t say exactly for Bush, who was close to being an alcoholic.  They’re afraid to leave him with decisions about attacking other countries such as Iran and North Korea, our hot-spots of the present.  He’s not known for making rash decisions, and rashness doesn’t have an open door in the White House.  There are steps to be taken besides a button on the desk for your impulse to press.  We can’t trust anyone with that feeling.  There are provisos. 
                                                                                 

So far, he’s been right about a lot of matters that we, the vast population, have not been privy to.  He felt he was being spied on.  He was right.  He talked about draining the swamp.  It’s turning out to be swampier than even he had noticed.  People like the head of the CIA was not to be trusted.  No, we’ve been living in a utopia when the world is upside down like Alice in Wonderland’s world. 
                                                                                      

Trump thinks outside the box.  This is something that Hillary didn’t do. She was under the direction of Obama.   She had no imagination what the enemy could do and therefore didn’t make plans to defend others in possible dangerous positions.  If Obama didn’t get concerned, she didn’t either.   She just thought she was deserving for her turn.  He did by putting his time in electoral states, since those ere the ones that mattered in the end.  So if someone has a creative mind, and a unique personality, he shouldn’t be labeled as “crazy” and incapable when he’s doing the job better than others would have done.  One year is over.  The next three will show where we are going and how successful he has been.  It it’s anything like this year when he has been up against the worst group of all to work with; haters, plotters, schemers, name callers, and still come through with his goals, we’ll know he’s most capable. 
                                                                               


After Abraham Lincoln died and had started the Civil War, did Andrew Johnson, father of 6 children, have an easy time being President?  He took over from a Republican as a Democrat This 17th president was the first president to be impeached, something the Democrats of today are trying to do to Trump.  
                                                                           
The swamp includes a former good friend and advisor, Steve Bannon,  who's now
turned on him in a book.  Lies?  Most likely.  Each of us views our life a little
differently than others do.  We all have different motives, some altruistic, some selfish.
A good reminder to treat others as you want to be treated. The book, "Fire and Fury" by Michael Wolff misquotes people now denying comments..  One book about him that sounds reasonable is "Let Trump Be Trump" by Corey R. Lewandowski and David N. Bossie.  
Unlike Trump, Johnson's Reconstruction policies were too lenient for his cabinet whereas the Democrats of today think Trump's  too harsh, harsh about having a wall promised by preceding presidents, harsh about recognizing Jerusalem, harsh about being stricter about immigration policy, cutting goodies from the Democrats’ Obama health program.  Johnson vetoed Reconstruction acts and this embittered the Radical Republicans in Congress.  It led to his political downfall.  He finished his 4 year term which ended March 4th, 1869.  Johnson died in Tennessee on July 31, 1875, 6 years later.  So Trump wasn’t the first to add groans and moans to the opposition party towards the helm of our country.  


Resource:  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Andrew_Johnson
Resource: http://www.businessinsider.com/big-five-personality-traits-predict-leadership-2016-12
My opinion piece in view of the terrible book that just came out about Trump. It just doesn't stop.