Saturday, March 28, 2015

Jews During Eastern Roman Empire (Byzantium) and the European Union

Nadene Goldfoot                                                                

As I watch what is happening in the UN and Europe to Israel, I am reminded to the Byzantium position towards Judaism and Jews of long ago.  There's not much difference between how Europeans feel towards the resumption of Israel and Jews today. 

 Today's difference is that many Arab countries such as Iran would like to take over Israel and the European Union most likely would like to do the same, just as the Byzantine suzerainty did in the year 390.  That's when Palestine, named as Palaestina by the Romans in 135, divided the land into the provinces of Palestina Prima, Palestina Secunda and Palestina Tertia.  These provinces were part of the Diocese of the East.  The difference is that back in the ancient days, the Empire's people spoke Greek but called themselves the Roman Empire.
Byzantine Empire 527-566
What's the difference between an EMPIRE and the European UNION?  An EMPIRE has ABSOLUTE authority and is a major political unit having a territory of great extent or a number of territories or peoples under a single sovereign authority.  An emperor acts as chief of state.  It can be something held to resemble a political empire, an extensive territory or enterprise under single domination or control   

The European Union is a group of European countries that participates in the world economy as one economic unit and operates under one official currency, the euro. The EU's goal is to create a barrier-free trade zone and to enhance economic wealth by creating more efficiency within its marketplace.The current formalized incarnation of the European Union was created in 1993 with 12 initial members. Since then, many additional countries have since joined. The EU has become one of the largest producers in the world, in terms of GDP, and the euro has maintained a competitive value against the U.S. dollar.

EU and non-EU members must agree to many legal requirements in order to trade with the EU member states.   It's an association of European nations formed in 1993 for the purpose of achieving political and economic integration. Incorporating the European Community, the European Union's member states are Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France,Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia,Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands,Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia,Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom.

  1. Today the leader of the EU is the German Angela Merkel, born July 1954, who grew up in East Germany, and was elected in 2005 as the first female German chancellor and clinched a third four-year term last December, making her the longest-serving elected EU head of state.  
  2. The EU position today regarding Israel continues to be the 2 State solution regardless of the past 66 years of non-negotiable Arab position.  They do not understand why Netanyahu feels that there is no way to go around this at this time.  
  3. "Borders: the EU considers that the future Palestinian state will require secure and recognised borders. These should be based on a withdrawal from the territory occupied in 1967 with minor modifications mutually agreed, if necessary, in accordance with UNSC Resolutions 242, 338, 1397, 1402 and 1515 and the principles of the Madrid Process. ( The reference found had nothing to say about the borders for a secure Israel). 
  4. Israeli settlements in the occupied Palestinian territory: on 8 December 2008 the EU confirmed its deep concern about recent accelerated settlement expansion. This expansion prejudges the outcome of final status negotiations and threatens the viability of an agreed two-state solution. The EU considers that settlement building anywhere in the occupied Palestinian Territory, including East Jerusalem, is illegal under international law.   (Notice their website mentions towns in so called Palestinian territory that is occupied.)  It's dodging the bullet on the fact that the Palestinian Arabs attacked and caused a war that ended with Israel winning back land officially deemed by the League of Nations and UN to be the Jewish National Homeland-with Britain holding the mandate and then changing their minds in allowing Abdullah I to have it in 1948.  The Arabs lost the land to Israel.  Israelis were building in their own land, not occupied Palestinian territory!    The Byzantium Empire reasoning is entering the EU's minds again on this point.  
  5. "12 March 2015 – Strasbourg – The AJC Transatlantic Institute is dismayed at a European Parliament resolution that calls on EU member states to back discriminatory policies against Israel at the UN Human Rights Council (HRC).
    In its resolution, the European Parliament called on the EU to “re-engage with Item 7 of the HRC.” Agenda item 7 indicts Israel alone among all the nations of the world for special scrutiny in violation of the UN’s own charter commitment to “equality of all nations large and small.” Because of this and other discriminatory policies, which both UN Secretaries General Kofi Annan and Ban Ki-moon criticized, Israel stopped cooperating with the HRC in May 2012. As part of the agreement for Israel to return to the HRC, EU Member States agreed to no longer participate in the Agenda Item 7 proceedings."
  6. "It is equally deplorable that the European Parliament urged EU governments to publicly support the UN Commission of Inquiry into the Gaza War. In July 2014, EU Member States had refused to back the HRC resolution setting up the Gaza War inquiry because, in the EU’s own words, it is “unbalanced, inaccurate, and prejudges the outcome of the investigation.The UN resolution creating this inquiry condemned Israel 18 times but, as the EU also pointed out at the time, “fails to condemn explicitly the indiscriminate firing of rockets into Israeli civilian areas as well as to recognize Israel´s legitimate right to defend itself.”  In other words, they condemn Israel but not the Palestinians and would not even admit that Israel had the right to defending itself.  That's as low as you can get.                              
    Constantinople, which is Istanbul, Turkey today
  7.   The Byzantine Empire is also known as the Eastern Roman Empire, for it was in fact a continuation of the Roman Empire into its eastern part. At its greatest size, during the 500's AD/CE, Byzantine included parts of southern and eastern Europe, the Middle East, and northern Africa.
The Byzantine people called themselves Romans although they were actually descendants of various ancient peoples and they spoke Greek.  In A.D./CE 324 the Emperor of the West, Constantine I, defeated the Emperors of the East, Maxentius and Licinius, in the civil wars of the Tetrarchy.

*The East was ruled by the Sasanids who was the Persian Empire, today's Iran.  They controlled both sides of the Caspian Sea, the eastern part of the Fertile Crescent, and the whole territory between the Tigris and Indus rivers.  Their religion was Zoroastrianism and they spoke Pahlavi, or middle Persian.  Both the Sasanian and Byzantine empires were autocratic, and both used religion as a tool of the state.  

The EU in the UN go along with ignoring the faults of all the countries in the world except one who they pile on imaginary faults;  Israel.  When the Byzantine Empire began to rule, this legally recognized religious group of Jews were generally tolerated, but then were put into periods of tensions and persecutions.  After the Arab conquests, about in 632, the majority of Jews found themselves outside the Empire.  Those inside the borders lived in relative peace from the 10th century on.

Constantinople was founded in 330.  Back in 212, a Roman emperor named Marcus Antoninus Aurelius Caracalla  bestowed citizenship on all its residents including the Jews.  He was a lot like his father, Septimius Severus who tended to favor the Jews.  He has been identified by some with Antoninus, the friend of Judah Ha-Nasi( 135-220) , a Palestinian Jew and redactor of the Mishnah.  He was the son and successor of Rabbi Simeon ben Gamaliel II.  He was the political as well as religious head of the Palestinian Jewish community and was obliged to maintain close relations with the Roman authorities.  One catch, the Jews could practice their faith as long as they paid the Fiscus Judaicus.  For example, circumcision was considered mutilation and therefore punishable by death if performed on a NON-JEWISH CHILD, and punished by exile if performed on a non-Jewish adult, but was legal within Jewish religious practices.

Constantinople was the capital of the Eastern Roman Empire which  then went by the title of the Byzantium Empire.  This lasted until the year 637 and its holdings included Palestine.  Jews were present in Byzantium from its foundations in the 4th century.  As the Eastern emperors developed their specific religious attitudes, the position of the Jews, especially their religious life, deteriorated.

The Roman Empire practiced Roman polytheism until 380 when they adopted Orthodox Christianity.  It survived the fragmentation and fall of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD/CE and continued to exist for an additional thousand years until it fell to the Ottoman Turks in 1453..

Jews were unique during the entire history of the Byzantine Empire just as they are today.  They didn't belong to the Christian Eastern Orthodox faith which was the state religion, nor were they grouped together with heretics and pagans.  Their legal position was somewhere in the middle and varied with time and the theological desire of the state to maintain the Jews as a living testament to the victory of Christianity, the desire of the state to strengthen its control, and the ability of centralized rule from Constantinople to enforce its legislation.

THEODOSIAN CODE: 404-527.    In 404 Jews were excluded from some governmental posts.  In 418 they were barred from the civil service and from all military positions.  In 425 they were excluded from all remaining public offices, both civilian and military.  Justinian I repeated these.

Justinian (527-565) had a code.  It included elaborate anti-Jewish laws.  He issued a decree in 553 which interfered with the conduct of the synagogue services.

Heraclius was reported in about 614 to have issued an edict ordering the conversion of the Jews.

The practice of Judaism was formally forbidden by successive emperors-by Leo in 723, by Basil 1 in 873-4, by Romanus Lucapenus in 932-6, etc.

It wasn't until about 1170 that Jewish life reestablished itself and Benjamin of Tudela found communities throughout the Empire, though he emphasized that in Constantinople itself they were treated with contempt.  Jews remained in the Byzantine Empire until the last remnant was conquered by the Turks in 1453.

The Byzantine Empire was very unfair to Jews. It was a conglomeration of many countries under one rule.   Now the EU, also a conglomeration of many countries under one rule,  has become unfair to the Jews of Israel, 6 million of them.  

The New Standard Jewish Encyclopedia
*Updated 3/29/15 About the East;  Middle East-Past & Present  textbook, Yahya Armajani and Thomas M. Ricks

Friday, March 27, 2015

Jews in Jeopardy in Yemen: Today's Arena of a War

Nadene Goldfoot                                                         
Ofra Haza, (Nov. 19, 1957-Feb 23, 2000)born in Tel Aviv, Israel of Yemenite parents, famous singer

Yemen, where 46,000-50,000 Jews were taken to Israel in 1949-1950 via Operation Magic Carpet, is now in big trouble, and though only about 1,400 Jews had been left there, those today are in big trouble finding themselves in today's escalating conflict.  Israel thought they had just about liquidated the Jews from Yemen in this lift.  The majority of the Yemenite Jews had made their way to Aden from where they were flown to Israel, since Egypt didn't permit their passage through the Suez Canal at this time.  The project began in the fall of 1949 and lasted for a year.   Iran-backed rebels are trying to take control of Yemen and Saudi-Arabia soldiers and other Arab forces are trying to stop them.  The Yemeni Jewish community really needs another Magic Carpet to whisk them away.

Ofra had done much for the Mizrachi Jews of Israel.  " (Hebrew: עפרה חזה‎, Arabic: عوفرة حازة‎;she  was not only an Israeli singer, but an actress and international recording artist. Her voice has been described as a "tender" mezzo-soprano.     "Her major international breakthrough came in the wake of the album Shirei Teiman (Yemenite songs), which she recorded in 1984."                                           

Inspired by a love of her Yemenite and Hebrew culture, her music quickly spread to a wider Middle Eastern audience, somehow bridging the divide between Israel and the Arab countries.  To this American Jewess, her Yemenite songs were from Magic Carpet tales.  
Yemen was one of the places where people had converted to Judaism as they were not hindered by the Christian dictum in Europe's Byzantium Empire  that did not permit this though Europe insisted that Jews convert to Christianity.  Yemen, the SW part of Arabia, was a land that Jews had been living in in biblical days; even the era of the 1st Temple of King Solomon who died in 922 BCE.  In fact Jewish tribes had been living in Medina, Arabia.  At first there were about 3,000 Jews living in Yemen.  Then, conversions to Judaism started under Abu Karib Asad who ruled from 390 to 420 CE and who converted.  He propagated his new faith among his subjects.  This was before Islam which started with Mohammad (570-632 CE).  Judaism became widely spread among Bedouin tribes of Southern Arabia.  Jewish converts were also found with the Hamdan, a northern Yemenite tribe.  It was the upper strata of society who became Jewish.  
Judaism reached its zenith under Dhu Nuwas.  This Arabian king was the last ruler of the independent Himyarite kingdom and he used the name of Yusuf (Joseph) after he gained the throne in 518.    "One Syriac source appears to suggest that the mother of Dhū Nuwās may have been herself a Jew hailing from the Mesopotamian city of Nisibis.  If so, this would place her origins within the Sassanid imperial sphere, and would illuminate possible political reasons for his later actions against the Christians of Arabia, who were natural allies of the Byzantine Empire."  According to legend, he retaliated for the persecution of Jews in the Byzantine empire and put to death some Byzantine merchants who came to his kingdom.   Sadly, When he died in 525 CE and his kingdom suffered a downfall, Christianity gained ground in southern Arabia, especially among the former converts to Judaism.  What had happened was that his forces had the soldiers of the  Christian city of Najran  surrender to him in about 523.  He invited the people to embrace Judaism but when they refused, he executed many of them.  He was killed and his kingdom was destroyed in a combined attack by Abyssinia and Byzantium.  Even so, some of the Yemenite rulers were Jewish.
Islam was created and spread quickly.  the Jews of Yemen were spared the fate of their coreligionists in Hejaz (Arabia.)  All non-Muslims had to make a payment of special taxes and the people were called Dhimmis, living under special laws, but Mohammed assured the Yemeni Jews protection and freedom of religion.  At any rate, no news came out of the land about what was really going on and their position must have been precarious, especially after the establishment of Shi-ite rule in the country in the early 10th century.  
The men only were educated in Jewish traditional studies.  They knew Hebrew and Aramaic very well besides their Arabic.  The Kabbalah was popular among them.  Out of their group they produced several liturgical poets, the most famous being Shalom SHABBAZI who lived in the late 17th century in Taiz, south of Sanaa.  He was a weaver but occupied himself with kabbalistic literature and gained a saintly reputation.  His tomb is a place of pilgrimage for the Jews of Yemen.  In some of his poems, Hebrew and Arabic are used alternately.  
Yemen then had many sectarian rulers.  Up to modern times, the Jews have been strictly forbidden to ride on animals or wear the same clothes as Muslims.  they have been deprived of their property on the pretext that any semblance of wealth was incompatible with the status assigned to the Jews by G-d.  Jews have constantly suffered from insults and abuses since religious law was interpreted to the effect that unbelievers should be disgraced.  Orphans were converted by force.
Jews usually have been able to live in villages or quarters of their own, but in the late 17th century, after they had been expelled and were not allowed to re-enter their former homes inside the walls, Jewish suburbs sprang up outside the Muslim cities.  
During the 19th century, Yemenite Jewry experienced some messianic movements.  The best known was in the 12th century when a false prophet proclaimed the amalgamation of Judaism and Mohammedanism.  Maimonides, a famous Jewish doctor and philosopher where his Epistle to Yemen in 1172 in reaction to this.  He begged the Jews to listen to the faith of their fathers despite compulsion and persecutions.  Persecutions have kept occurring to these fantastic artisans of silversmithing.  .  
1914 photograph of a Yemenite Jew in traditional vestments under the tallit gadol, reading from a scroll-most likely the Torah.
' Yemeni Jews are generally described as belonging to "Mizrahi Jews", though they differ from the general trend of Mizrahi groups historically which have undergone a process of total or partial assimilation to Sephardic culture and liturgy."
The capital of Yemen is Sanaa.  Some of the war's strikes are hitting this city today.  In the early 19th century, Yemenite Jews were said to have numbered 30,000 and about 1/3 of them were living in Sanaa.  
Today Saudi Arabia launched air strikes targeting military installations in Yemen held by the Shiite rebels storming the country's south.  Iran reacted to this by calling the air strikes a dangerous step that would worsen the crisis in the country.  In the 1980s Iran had a bloody war with Iraq.  They fought till each country was using its young teens as soldiers.  In this war, Iran is supporting the Houthi insurgency.  Iran considers the Saudis as invaders.  
These remaining Jews, possibly only 90 left,  want to move to Israel but they say they have matters to finish tending to and everything is very difficult to do right now.  They are in danger every day.  They want to see their houses but can't since no one wants to buy now.  The Muslim community wants them to leave without getting any money.  That seems to be the only thing holding them back.  They're battling hatred and racism.  When a family needs something, the father goes out to buy it and returns immediately to his home.  In Rayda, one 50 year old father commented that the people next to him are fleeing and leaving.  He said that we are now wasting what we've saved all their lives in an awful situation.  This is so reminiscent of the Syrian refugees who have gone through the same thing, except they weren't hated since they weren't Jewish.  

The New Standard Jewish Encyclopedia

Thursday, March 26, 2015

Was German Co-Pilot Andrea Gunter Lubitz Committing Jihad?

Nadene Goldfoot                                                                  
Andreas Gunter Lubitz sitting by the San Francisco Golden Gate  Bridge

On March 24, announced today,  a 27-28 year old German co-pilot,  Andreas Gunter Lubitz, was alone in the pilot's cabin when his Germanwings Airbus A320 plowed into the French Alps while the locked-out pilot was banging on the locked door.  All 150 persons were killed and the plane was minced into little teeny pieces.  The black box voice recorder from the plane was found and it was discovered that he had locked the pilot out of the cabin. "FlightRadar24, an online air tracking service that uses satellite data, said it had found evidence the autopilot was abruptly switched from cruising height to maintain an altitude of just 100 feet, the lowest possible setting."

Of the 150, one  Israeli,  Eyal Baum,  39 years old  from Hod Hasharon was on board the plane.   That was reported on CNN and Haaretz.

"A delegation from the ultra-Orthodox Jewish movement Chabad is traveling to the crash site to help with the recovery 

efforts, Rabbi Eliyahu Attia told Army Radio.  Baum  was co-founder of Bites, "Bites is a participation platform that allows anyone to discover the opinions and wisdom of the crowd by creating engaging polls and trivia questions."

 It appears that Andreas did this on purpose, so it was a mass murder.  There was nothing reported so far to tell why on TV news.

Pamela Geller found this on facebook about him.  Germanwings co-pilot Andreas Lubitz praised on Facebook: " Our holy martyr Lubitz died for our prophet."  Yet the White House was Johnny on the spot to announce to all that this was not a terrorist act before there were 5 minutes into checking on it. When I went into facebook and on his page, it was not there.

Andreas grew up in Montabaur, Germany.  He trained in Bremen, Germany at the Lufthansa Flight Training School in 2008, and in Arizona, USA. "Andreas Lubitz, 27, was a German citizen and started working for Germanwings' parent companyLufthansa at a flight training center outside of Phoenix in 2008, company officials said.

The facility, called Airline Training Center Arizona, was owned by Lufthansa and is used by its pilots in addition to other training locations in Germany, Switzerland and Austria, officials said."  Maybe this was when he went to San Francisco and had his picture taken by the Golden Gate.  

 Breman is the home of  Masjidu-1-Furqan Mosque which was raided  by the police in December, 2014.  That was only 3 months and 20 days ago.  It was raided because it was more of a Salafist mosque, and the Germans accused them of promoting ISIS values and encouraging young Muslims in the city to travel to Syria and Iraq and join the ranks of the group along with Al-Nusra Front.

Now, the thought is that since no one seemed to know of Andreas's religion or if he had any, and it could have been Catholic being Germany has long been a Catholic country, somehow during his training stint in Breman, Andreas might have come in contact with friendly Muslims and had converted.   So far the mosque had been successful in inspiring 8 men, 7 women and 11 juveniles to travel to Syria and join IS.  Was Andreas doing his bit this way?  This would have been mass murder by suicide.

The German police have gone to his home in Dusseldorf.  He also  lived with his parents in Montabaur.  The police  say they have  had a potential breakthrough, but not a suicide note.  Montabaur is 40 miles from Bonn.   Andreas spent time in both Montabaur and Dusseldorf in a flat.

Back in 2008, Andreas's pilot training was interrupted because of mental health problems.  A friend said he was in a depression.  Airline bosses confirmed that Lubitz had taken several months off work and had to retrain to join the firm, but insisted he was 100% fit to fly and had passed all his medical tests.  They don't have any mental health testing for pilots. 1.8 million Germans are alcoholics.  The questions about pilots being alcoholics is not known.  Could this have been Lubitz's problem?

There are 7 mosques within the Dusseldorf area and 6 within the Montabaur area.  "There is an estimated number of 400,000- 500,000 people of Arab origin residing in Germany.   Most Arabs came to Germany in the 1970s, partly as Gastarbeiter from Morocco, the Turkish Province of Mardin (see: Arabs in Turkey) and Tunisia. However, the majority of Arabs are refugees of the conflicts in the Middle East, e.g. the Lebanese Civil WarPalestinian exodus and the recent Iraq War,  Libyan Civil War, and current Syrian civil war. The Arabs in Germany are not a homogenous group, because they originate from about 20 countries.

It has been said that Lubitz had a Muslim girlfriend.  It's very possible he met her at a mosque.

update: 3/27/15..1:52pm
update: 3/30/15/12:37pm  4.3 million Muslims in Germany

Wednesday, March 25, 2015

How USA Love Grew For Israel

Nadene Goldfoot                                                                     
2nd USA President John Adams (1735-1826)

Founding Father of the United States of America, John Adams, wished that the "Jews" would again have an independent nation in Judea and said this in 1819.  The USA was born in 1776.
Harry S. Truman (1884-1972) 33rd President
In 1948, Harry S. Truman, President of the USA, was the first nation to recognize the reestablishment of the State of Israel. "Truman said that he  decided his policy on the basis of justice, not oil."   He had advisers who were against it.  What had made him amiable to the solution?  He had a wonderful relationship with his Haberdashery partner in the business world before his presidency who was Jewish, and listened to the Israeli's contingent of appeals.  It is said that his wife, Bess did not like Jews.  Bess is actually distantly related to my mother, who converted to Judaism.
John F. Kennedy, 35th President (1917-1963)
President John F. Kennedy said that Israel carries the shield of democracy, and it honors the sword of freedom.                                                                  
Richard Nixon, 37th President (1913-1994)
President Richard M. Nixon replied that "The Israelis have shown qualities that Americans identify with:  guts, patriotism, idealism, and a passion for freedom.
Bill Clinton, 42nd President, (1946)

President Bill Clinton had remarked that "America and Israel share a special bond...Like America, Israel is a strong democracy, a symbol of freedom, and an oasis of liberty."
Barak Hussein Obama 44th President (1961)
There are many nice quotes made by Obama about Israel.  There have also been a lot of negativity lately.  Some quotes he has said are:
1. “The ultimate goal is two states for two people:  Israel as a Jewish state and the homeland for the Jewish people and the State of Palestine as the homeland for the Palestinian people -- each state in joined self-determination, mutual recognition, and peace.”

2. “When I touched my hand against the Western Wall and placed my prayer between its ancient stones, I thought of all the centuries that the children of Israel had longed to return to their ancient homeland.  When I went to Sderot and saw the daily struggle to survive in the eyes of an eight-year-old boy who lost his leg to a Hamas rocket, and when I walked among the Hall of Names at Yad Vashem, I was reminded of the existential fear of Israelis when a modern dictator seeks nuclear weapons and threatens to wipe Israel off the face of the map -- face of the Earth.”

3. “I will call not just on Israel, but on the Palestinians, on the Arab States, and the international community to join us in this effort, because the burden of making hard choices must not be Israel’s alone.”
"We stand with Israel as a Jewish and democratic state. America's commitment and my commitment to the security of Israel is unshakeable."

4. "Those who threaten Israel threaten us. Israel has always faced these threats on the frontlines, and I will bring to the White House an unshakable commitment to Israel's security. That starts with insuring Israel's qualitative military advantage. I will insure that Israel can defend itself from any threat, from Gaza to Tehran."

The president who said these and more nice things has disappeared.  Has the real Barak Hussein Obama stepped out of the shadows now that he is closer to the end of his presidency?  
A senior official from Obama's administration called Netanyahu "CHICKENSHIT."  Obama says his relationship with Netanyahu is "businesslike."  "

"Obama's vow to reassess U.S.-Israeli relations reflects a skewed view of the sources of regional instability."

On 8 November 2011 a private conversation between French President Nicolas Sarkozy and U.S. President Barack Obama were overheard criticizing Israeli Prime Minister Binyamin Netanyahu. Sarkozy branded Netanyahu as a 'liar' and Obama expressed his displeasure with having to deal with Netanyahu on a regular basis.    

On March 26, 2012 during a talk with outgoing Russian President Medvedev, Obama said " "This is my last election. After my election I have more flexibility about missiles defense."  Was this concerning Iran or Israel?  Did this have anything to do with Israel's Iron Dome?  Iron Dome is part of a future multi-tiered missile defense system that Israel has developed, which will also include Arrow 2Arrow 3,Iron Beam and David's Sling from as early as 2018.With only less than 2 years left of his occupation of the White House, Obama is coming up with an attitude.  

 When Netanyahu won in his election in March 2015, Obama would not congratulate him as soon as other heads of state did, which was being very petty.  He finally did so, most likely with a heavy heart.  What a fine way to continue their working together, even as business-like.  

Have we come to the nadir of  USA-Israeli relations?  This certainly is our lowest point.  Obama has taken the opposite viewpoint of Netanyahu about every problem concerning Israel in creating a 2 state solution with the Palestinian Arabs and doesn't want to understand why Netanyahu said that now is not possible.  Israel wants to make peace but the Palestinians want to destroy Israel.  

From 1967 to 1968, the USA had  regarded Israel as an ally in the Middle East.  They saw that Israel could help the USA policy of containment of Soviet expansion there since Israel had a surprising victory over the Soviet-backed Arab countries in the 1967 War.    In 1968 Congress agreed to sell US Phantom jets to Israel.  It was a first.  However, at the same time the US ALSO  continued to sell  military equipment that was quite sophisticated to Jordan, Morocco, Egypt, Saudi Arabia and the Gulf States.  It was quite a business.

Nevertheless, in 1969, Israel held a daring raid in December called "Operation Rooster 53" when their paratroopers captured the newest Soviet radar in Egypt and Israel gave the technological information to the USA.  This proved Israel's strategic value to the USA.

The next year in 1970 Israel supported Jordan when the Syrian tanks invaded Jordan.  At the USA request, Israeli jets didn't attack;  they just flew low enough for the Syrian commanders to see Israel's Stars of David on the wings.  The tanks quickly withdrew from Jordan.  It was the 1967 War when Israel had begged Jordan not to join up with the other Arab forces to attack Israel, but Jordan joined in anyway and thus lost land they had stolen from Israel originally.  What a funny way to regain one's property.  
Yom Kippur 1878
A terrible attack happened in 1973 on Israel.  The Arabs attacked on Yom Kippur, the Jewish most Holy Day of fasting and being in the synagogue asking G-d for forgiveness from any sins.  Israel had to fight against a surprise attack against foes who used Soviet military technology and weaponry.  It was then that the USA realized that Israel was their only friend who was stable and strong, despite their size  in the Middle East and that's when Israel was then eligible to sell military equipment  to the USA and the 2 countries, one huge and one teeny- tiny, began joint, limited military programs.
The IRON DOME was a joint venture between the USA and Israel.  Iron Dome (Hebrew: כִּפַּת בַּרְזֶל, kippat barzel) is a mobile all-weather air defense system developed by Rafael Advanced Defense Systems and Israel Aircraft Industries.  It's been in service since 2011.

Resource: Israel 101 from StandWith Us pages. 18-19

Ehud Barak's 2001 Two-State Solution Offer and How it Was Received-What He Says Now

Nadene Goldfoot                                                                       
1999 Ehud Barak, PM with Labor Party  and again in 2006 with Kadima Party

The 2nd Intifada was raging from 2000.  Prime Minister Ehud Barak of Israel tried again with another offer which included 97% of Judea and Samaria when at the Taba Conference.  The Palestinian Arabs refused it again!!!  Instead, terrorism escalated.
Shimon Peres 1995
Benjamin Netanyahu 1996-1999, 2012-1013, 2015
Yitzhak Rabin 1993
Since the Oslo Peace Process had started in 1993, it was Israel's Labor party with Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin that had to deal with Yasser Arafat, the PLO Chairman and President Bill Clinton and MidEast Envoy Dennis Ross. .  The players remained the same except that in 1995 Shimon Peres,  former Foreign Minister, was now the Prime Minister.   In 1996 the Prime Minister was Benjamin Netanyahu of Likud.  Still, there was no way that the Arabs were interested in accepting any peace deal.  In 1999 Ehud Barak was Prime Minister in Israel of the Labor Party.
Ariel Sharon, PM from 2001-2006
  It wasn't until 2004 that the USA had George W. Bush and Mahmoud Abbas as the PLO Chairman.  These 2 new players worked with Ariel Sharon. This is when Sharon announced that Israel would withdraw unilaterally from the remaining 20% of Gaza and from a large part of  northern Judea and Samaria.  They uprooted all Jewish communities that were living there in the name of peace.   In 2006 Ehud Olmert of the Kadima Party became Prime Minister when Sharon had a stroke.

 Throughout these 13 years, the Arabs were unmovable no matter who worked with them in a 2 state solution.  The terrorists continued to oppose any solution and killed 282 Israelis from 1993 during the next 5 years.  Before the Oslo Accords were signed, the terrorists had killed 216 during 15 years leading up to 1993.                                                                    
 In July through August of 2006 Israel was kept busy with the war with Hezbollah-Party of G-d which were founded by the Iranian Revolutionary Guards.  Now Iran is in the mix.  They supported the Palestinian terrorists and set up cells in Judea-Samaria and Gaza.  Their attacks came from the border region between Israel and Lebanon.

Israel had continued to withdraw from Judea and Samaria until 98% of the Palestinians were governed by the PA.  At times Israel needed to reoccupy these areas as needed for security during the 2nd Intifada.  The central premise of the Oslo Accords was to bring about peaceful behavior in the Arabs, but their violence undermined all that.  Differences were supposed to be settled peacefully, but try as they did, their efforts were shattered.

From September 1993 to 94, 26 Israelis were murdered in terrorist attacks.
1994......73 Israelis were murdered
1995......52  "
1996...   87
1997...   31
1998..   13
1999 ..    4, and things were looking up.  But then the 2nd Intifada started in 2000.
2000..   47
2001.. 206
2004...117 and by 2005 there were 45 murdered and in 2006 there were 32 murdered.  And then the bottom fell out.  Hamas terrorism was elected as leaders in Gaza with Fatah's Abbas kicked out of the area and into Judea-Samaria.

1993 - 1999 from Jewish Virtual Library

Terrorist Activity
Judea and Samaria
Gaza Strip
IDF soldiers killed2032
IDF soldiers wounded617419
Israeli civilians killed435
Israeli civilians wounded56786
Molotov cocktails1784715
Cases of arson10213
Explosive devices157181
Fragmentation grenades5862

The question has not been answered as to how Israel can have a 2 state solution when the Arabs are divided between Gaza and Judea- Samaria.  Though Jews had lived in Gaza throughout history, it was Judea and Samaria that  historically were the sites of their original countries.  Samaria was simply the capital of Israel, the land designated originally to be the Jewish Homeland by G-d.  Anyway you look at it, Israel is being surrounded by Palestinian Arab terrorists from the southwest in Gaza and from the eastside in Judea-Samaria.  It was thought by Israel and The Quartet (UN, EU, USA, Russia) that Palestine would have been created by 2005 but the Palestinians were unwilling to come to terms.  With them, it looks like, they want all or nothing.

Are you surprised that Netanyahu says that he has given up on the idea as long as the Palestinians have not changed their ideology?  Would you keep on beating your head against the wall?  Or are you going to feign shock like Obama has.    

Ehud Barak still hasn't given up, however.  Somehow, he thinks there will be a breakthrough in their thinking.  The way it could happen is through pressure from other more reliable Arab partners.  So far, Israel has good relations with Saudi Arabia, Jordan and Egypt.  Pressure from them should help, he thinks.  To me, it's like forcing someone to convert to a different religion.  They must see the possibilities peace offers as being far better than what they have been doing, or it is just a sham.  However is Hamas going to change their charter from following the Muslim Brotherhood?  Their whole being is to rid the Middle East of Israel.  Their whole philosophy must go through some sort of transmutation.

Rabin, Clinton, Arafat

Barak, Clinton, Arafat at Camp David
Barak, Cllinton, Arafat

Netanyahu and Obama
Mahmoud Abbas of PA 2004  to 2015
Israel has tried very hard to come to peace with the Palestinian Arabs.  
Israel 101 from StandWithUs