Wednesday, August 15, 2018

Episcopal Bishop Passes on Lashon Hara-False Rumors as Facts About Israel

Nadene Goldfoot                                                               

In this day and age we see a female Episcopal Bishop in New York City falling for blood libels about Israelis.  She had the chutzpa to condemn Israel at a church convention.  

It was Bishop Gayle Harris of the Episcopal Church's diocese in Massachusetts who defamed Israel in July at her church's general convention in Austin, Texas. "It is the decision-making body for the denomination, which has approximately 1.9 million members in the U.S. " She told 2 horrible unsubstantiated stories of atrocities committed by Israel against Palestinians.  She told these horror stories in order to get the other bishops to vote for a resolution condemning Israel for mistreating Palestinian children."  It's as if there isn't enough voting against Israel wrongly in the UN, but now USA churches must get in on the act.  
In one story she related how Israeli soldiers shot a teen 10 times in the back on purpose.  The other story was about a little 3 year old whose ball rolled away and fell into the Western Wall Plaza from the Temple Mount, causing Israeli soldiers to handcuff the child to take him away.   
"The Diocese of Massachusetts currently has two Bishops, Bishop Tom Shaw and Bishop Gail Harris.  Our Bishops are the Priests for the Priests.  This means that the Bishops are the shepherds for the priests in the diocese and the parishes."
This is false news passed on by a religious person to defame another religion, Judaism.  It was told as if she were the witness.  It's been proven to be false by CAMERA, our news people who watch out for such matters and try to get people to shape up and tell news that is the truth.  In this matter, the Bishop and her church have not apologized for such lies nor told their people the truth.  

Of course, the outcome was that  the resolution failed to condemn Hamas or the Palestinian Authority for their own crimes against their own children.  No, they left thinking the worst about Israel, confirming their feelings about Jews.  

"Unless she can provide confirmatory details – such as the names of the victims, the date, time and location of the incidents and her sources – for these stories, she must retract and apologize to her fellow bishops and to the general public for engaging in ugly propagandizing against the Jewish state in a church setting."  This should be true anytime someone in the news attacks Israel or Jews with lies. 

 What's wrong with people today?  They are so willing to believe the worst without checking it out for themselves, and the worst are the other newscasters who are also guilty of passing on any unverified information.  Truly, this is what lashon hara is all about;  repeating lies about someone; negative talk, something we are to refrain from doing.    In this case it's plain old anti-Semitism in action.  

 "Predictably, the resolution, which was approved, failed to condemn Hamas and the Palestinian Authority for teaching young Palestinians to hate Israelis and for using children’s television programming relentlessly to promote violence against Jews."  Such an anti-Semitic attitude of the church does not bring on peace in the Middle East for Israelis or Palestinians.  It just breeds more blind hatred.  No one evidently spoke out against what she related.  After all, she was a fellow bishop.  
Christian religious writer, Lisa Bevere
Sadly, this is the state of affairs with religion in the USA today.  "Like some other mainline Protestant churches in the United States, the Episcopal Church has an obsession with Israel. Anti-Israel “peace” activists were able to get a total of 15 resolutions condemning Israel onto the agenda of the denomination’s General Convention and of these 15, six were approved."   

The Episcopal Church, similar to the  Church of England in England,  originated in England and was the state religion, certainly at the time of the Pilgrims leaving for the unknown America in 1620 but started by Henry VIII in 1534.  For the Episcopal Church is organized like the Church of England with bishops of which 25 million belong.  The US Episcopal Church (which is historically an off-shoot of the Scottish Episcopal Church) is part of the Anglican Communion, and is therefore an Anglican Church. The Anglican Communion has member churches in many different countries.


Sunday, August 12, 2018

Paths Jews Followed to Prague

Nadene Goldfoot                                             
The Arch of Titus in Rome
Forcing Jewish slaves to carry the loot Romans took out of the Temple
before burning it down
70 CE was  a momentous date for Jews.  That's when the Romans, who had been occupying Jerusalem since 40 BCE, decided to burn the city along with the Jewish 2nd Temple and turn it into a Roman Temple site.  It had been that "in 37 BCE, Herod, a son-in-law of Hyrcanus II, was appointed King of Judea by the Romans." Judah had been without their own kingly dynasty since their last king, Zedekiah, who ruled from 597-586 BCE.  

After 632 when Mohammed died, a mosque was built over the Roman Temple built in the very center of the Temple area in Jerusalem, called the Mosque of Omar  by Calph Omar, which was a temporary structure.  Then in about 738,  It was rebuilt by the Caliph Abd al-Malik also known as (Dome of the Rock) to replace the temporary structure set up by Caliph Omar.  The 2 mosques were built about a century apart on Mt. Moriah.  Today this is called the Temple Mount area and Moshe Dayan, Israeli general, gave the Jordanians rule over the mount due to the Muslim temples being there.  The problem remains that they sit over the site of our first Temple built by King Solomon and the 2nd Temple rebuilt by the Israeli returnees from Babylonian exile.  The temples were centers of Jewish learning and the Jewish religion, the first monotheistic religion in the world.  

Jews were taken captive and marched to Rome as shown by the ARCH OF TITUS  in Rome that depicts the event.  The Jews are forced to carry the loot the Romans have taken out of the Temple.  

They were used as prisoners in building in Rome and even in their army.  Eventually they worked their way to France and Germany.  These are the Jews who eventually became those called the Ashkenazi Jews, those who had been in Germany.  

Others had escaped from Jerusalem and had gone to the Iberian Peninsula, known about in past trading routes.  Before 1492, problems arose with the spread of Christianity and it's first formal presentation with Catholicism.  By 1492, Jews were expulsed from Spain if they didn't convert to Christianity.  They moved to Portugal and Central Italy,  then later to Western Europe in their  commercial cities.  The Ottoman Empire with Islam was more tolerant towards Jews though they had intolerant writing about them in their Koran, and they were treated as 2nd class people there, only occasionally attacked for being Jewish.  Istanbul and Salonica became Jewish centers.

The Jews in Rome thus wound up in Northern Italy, and from there spread out to Bohemia, Moravia and Poland.  Prague, Bohemia/Czechoslovakia, Cracow, Poland which is near the Czech Republic  and Lublin, Poland became Jewish centers after such German centers in Worms and Mainz, Germany in the 1000s.  

.  The area of Prague  became the seat of the dukes, and later kings of Bohemia.  Prague contained an important slave market.  Jews had come to Prague in the 10th century as traders.    Prague was an important seat for trading where merchants from all of Europe settled, including many Jews, as recalled in 965 by the Hispano-Jewish merchant and traveller Ibrahim ibn Ya'qub Under Holy Roman Emperor Otto II the area became a bishopric in 973. Jews fought against the attacks of the Crusaders there in 1096.  They suffered from severe persecution and many were forcibly baptized by the Christians.  Things got a little better by the 12th century.  

Until Prague was elevated to archbishopric in 1344, it was under the jurisdiction of the Archbishopric of Mainz, Rhineland (Germany) The Old New Synagogue of 1270 still stands.   Today of course,  Prague is the capital of the Czech Republic.  It used to be called Czechoslovakia. Many Jews had fled to Czechoslovakia from eastern Europe at the time of the Chmielnicki pogroms of 1648 in Poland when 744 Jewish communities were wiped out, but ghetto regulations continued to be enforced and even the number of marriages were restricted by law.  Maria Theresa decreed in 1744 the general expulsion of Jews. Jews were then fully exiled from 1745 to 1748, and were only allowed to return after promising to pay exorbitant taxes.  They had to continue to live in ghettos.  By 1848, the Jews of Prague were granted full equality and 4 years later in 1852 the ghetto was abolished.  

This is when Jews became interested in the German culture and less about the Czech culture.  Then the geography changed, because in 1938, 15,000 Jews from the Sudenten district (The Sudetenland is the historical German name for the northern, southern, and western areas of former Czechoslovakia which were inhabited primarily by Sudeten Germans) ceded to Germany and sought refuge in Prague.  Anti-Semitism was running rampant in Germany by then.  A month later, the liquidation of the Prague Jewish community began.  There were 65,000 Jews in Prague in 1942 with about 25,000 being refugees and all were exterminated by 1945.  

What amazes me is that there was a small Jewish community there with 1,400 Jews , subservient to the Communist regime who had taken over until the 1989 revolution.  Since 1989, Jews have been living without malice, probably up until now since it's spreading all over the world again.  Tourists have been coming and viewing the magnificently preserved synagogues and cemeteries, rare finds in Europe as the 2nd World War destroyed so many.  

The New Standard Jewish Encyclopedia

Wednesday, August 8, 2018

The Precarious Life of Rabbi Yom-Tov Lipmann Heller Ancestor of Many Today

Nadene Goldfoot                              

Gershon Shaul Yom Tov Lipman Heller, "Tosfot Yom Tov"(1579-1654)

Austria in those days was where German Jews fled to from persecutions in Germany.  By 1244, Duke Frederick the Quarrelsome gave the Jews a new charter serving as a model for other countries.  From the 13th to 15th century, serious persecutions kept happening culminating in 1420 with a ritual murder accusation against the Jews.  That caused Jews in Austria to be either burned, expelled or forcibly baptized, with even more restrictions coming.  The scene is now set for the birth of Rabbi Yom Tov and his bout with Austria.

Rabbi Yom Tov was a Talmudist.  That means he had a lot to say about our books, the 2 Talmuds, the Babylonian one written in Babylonia, the more popular one and the Palestinian one, written in the Homeland.  Both these compilations were made up of the records of academic discussions and of judicial administration of Jewish Law.  Generations of scholars and jurists, experts in our law were kept on record of what they had decided from many academies and from more than one country over many centuries.  These were completed around 200 CE.  I note that RASHI, who was Rabbi Solomon Yitzhaki ben Isaac (1040-1105) was one of the most respected commentators and his name appears in our prayer books many times.  These people were most likely Cohens in the synagogues, serving in that capacity as well.  Today, this line appears in our Y DNA as a J1 haplogroup or variation of the J.  

Rabbi Yom Tov  was born in Bavaria which is now a state within Germany that borders Liechtenstein, Austria and the Czech Republic.  Munich is this state's capital.  When he was 18 years old, he was appointed dayyan at Prague.  A dayyan is a judge in a rabbinical court.  Not all rabbis were qualified to serve as dayyanim.  The ordinary rabbi can decide only on matters of religious nature.  However, the dayyan is also qualified to judge money matters and problems of civil law brought before a Jewish court.  It is amazing to us today that an 18 year old would be deemed to such a position.  

In those days  Prague was a well known city,  built in 1402, part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire of 1867 and  was called Czechoslovakia from October 1918 till recently, calling it Czech Republic by 1993.  Prague is still  the capital.    

When he was 50 years old in 1629, he was fined heavily on a charge of libeling the state and Christianity, and was forbidden to act as rabbi in Prague. "Rabbi Heller was accused of insulting Christianity and imprisoned in Vienna." This was the state's decision, not the Jewish people he served.  Charges were usually false against Jews, and done for reason of garnishing money from them.  
About the Chmielnicki massacres

He thus served  in various communities, being in Cracow, (Krakow today a southern Polish city near the border of the Czech Republic, is known for its well-preserved medieval core and Jewish quarter)., during the Chmielnicki massacres of 1648-49 in Ukraine for which he composed penitential psalms and commemorative prayers.  This is a city with the nickname of "a hundred spires", spires being the tops of the Catholic churches.  Their pedestrian Charles Bridge is lined with statues of Catholic saints.  It had its Jewish quarter as well.  The atmosphere of this city was heavy with Catholicism.  A man named Chmielnicki " told people that the Polish had sold them as slaves "into the hands of the accursed Jews."  The Cossacks, a military class of Ukranian-southern Russians,  were so angry when they heard this that they massacred tens of thousands of Jews during 1648-49 in a war that would later be known as among the worst of that time period.                                           

"Because of their role in the government and economy as tax collectors and customs agents, non-Jewish members of the lower class were not happy with the Jews. For a century this anger and hate boiled over until it spilled over the edge with the Chmielnicki Massacres by Polish, Ukrainian, and Russian Cossacks. Events like the slaughter of 2000 Jews on June 24th, 1648, the killing of 10,000 Jews on July 22nd, 1648, and the massacre of 12,000 Jews on November 2nd, 1648 were big examples of the anti-semitism running wild throughout Ukraine." It must be remembered that discrimination against Jews amounted to not letting them into any way of self support except by lending money  and such things deplorable to them such as being tax collectors and customs agents.  I don't think that many a Jew was left in the Ukraine after this blood-letting.  

Rabbi Yom Tov was lucky to have been in Poland at the time.  He went on to write many other works on religious subjects and secular compositions on such subjects as mathematics and natural science.  His fame was in writing a commentary on the Mishnah, Tosephot Yom Tov.  (The Additions of Yom Tov).  It was printed in many following editions of the Mishnah, liked for its profundity, simplicity, and logical approach to matters.  The book of Mishnah was the legal codification containing the core of the ORAL LAW.  From early times in Israel there was the tradition of interpretation and analysis of the WRITTEN LAW OF MOSES.  During the 2nd Temple period, the ancient oral tradition was upheld by the Pharisees and supported by the majority of the Jews.  It wasn't recognized by other sects, such as the Sadducees and the Essenes, who had their own traditions regarding the interpretation of the Written Law.  After the destruction of the Temple, the Pharisaic view won national acceptance and the Oral Law was studied in the many academies of rabbis.  

He had a start in life that was all about his education.  "After Rabbi Heller was born, he was raised by his grandfather, Rabbi Moses Ha-Levi Heller in Wallerstein, now in Germany. As a teenager Heller was sent to Friedberg, near Wallerstein, where he studied in the yeshiva of Rabbi Jacob Günzburg. From there he moved to Prague, where he became a disciple of the Maharal, head of the yeshiva of Prague".  Life was made up of studying and learning just as young men and women are expected to do today, only on a more serious level back then for Jews, as it was about their religion.  This was the life of many Ashkenazi Jews.  

(Note) the Pharisees were of the 2nd Temple period.  The first temple was destroyed in 586 BCE by Nebuchadnezzar.  Jews returned to Jerusalem in 538 BCE. a period of 48 years of being forced to be away. When they returned, they rebuilt the Temple which was then destroyed in 70 CE by the Romans.   They might have been the descendants of the Hasideans and made up a relatively narrow body of men.  There was a gulf between them and the others ignorant of the Law or not practicing it.  It was the Sadducees who controlled the Temple matters.  They saw things differently.  The Pharisees admitted the principle of evolution to their legal decisions.  The Sadducees were incapable of adaptation to the changing environment.  The Pharicees were more lenient in their decisions.  The Sadducees clung to the letter of the written text.  

Originally compiled by Rabbi Judah Ha-Nasi on the basis of earlier collections, it   was arranged logically, divided into 6 orders dealing with religious laws about agriculture, laws of Sabbath, festivals, laws of marriage and divorce and vows, damages, civil and criminal legislation, holy things, koshering, etc.  

The descendants of Rabbi Yom Tov Heller are on a website below.  I note on it that Rabbi Yom Tov should be very proud.  Rabbi  Isser Yehuda Unterman, second Ashkenazic Chief Rabbi of the State of Israel, was born on 14 Nissan 5646 / 1886 in Brest-Litovsk (Brisk), where his father, R' Eliyahu, was a melamed / teacher of children. Among R' Isser Yehuda's ancestors were R' Yom Tov Lipman Heller (1579-1654; author of the Mishnah commentary, Tosefot Yom Tov) and Rabbi Shaul Wahl Katznellenbogen (1540_1616). Legend records that this latter personality was elected King of Poland for a day.

The New Standard Jewish Encyclopedia

Monday, August 6, 2018

Revelation of Jews Who Remained in England During Expulsion Period of 1290-1655

Nadene Goldfoot                              
Jewish home in Lincoln, England

Jews were forced out of England from 1290 to 1655, a period of 365 years.  Christians there couldn't abide us living with them.  The ironic fact is that in 1922, the English were awarded the mandate by the League of Nations to be in charge of helping the Jews to create the Jewish Homeland out of Palestine!   What they immediately did was turn over 80% of the land meant for the Jews to an Arab prince who needed land being there wasn't any left for him in Arabia.  He was the ggrandfather of today's king of Jordan.  Jews remained homeless since 70 CE when the Romans with more updated war weapons and men destroyed Jerusalem and the 2nd Temple of Solomon.  Treated as pariahs, wanted by kings for their talents and then kicked out once they were no longer necessary, they finally had their own country in a corner of their past empire on May 14, 1948, Israel.  

In 1656, the English altered  their prejudice against Jews  enough to allow Jews to return.  Here they had had the attitude similar to the Nazi one of getting rid of the Jews.  The Nazis of course had their final decision of killing all Jews in the world.   The revelation is that the Jews in England had never entirely gone away!  They were hidden Jews from the public's eye, similar to the hidden Jews of Spain after their 1492 decree of convert or leave upon facing death!                                         
William of Normandy-the "Conqueror"

Jews did not enter England originally until the Norman conquest in 1066 by William the Conqueror aka William of Normandy.  Normandy was a part of northern France.  After that, a handful of Jewish financiers followed William  from the Continent. " It is likely that individual Jews came to this country long before then, as far back as Roman times, whether willingly as traders, or by force as slaves."  

However, it is impossible to talk of a settled Jewish community until the late 11th century. It was then that William of Normandy brought over Jews from his French territory to help colonize his new kingdom.
The first Jews to arrive probably settled in the London area, either because it was one of the nearest points of entry or because it was the seat of royal power. The latter was important as the Jews were outside of the traditional feudal system, which was based on land and allegiance to local overlords, from serfs to squires to nobility to the monarch.
 In the next generation, communities were established in London, York, Bristol, Canterbury and other places.  
Crusades:  1095-1291
killing Arabs and Jews
throughout all 5 Crusades, even through Europe
on their way to Jerusalem

Jews  traded and lent money to the baronage.  They also advanced funds for their current needs on the security of the revenue to the Crown, which was protecting them.  It must have been the crown who protected them during the 1st and 2nd Crusades, though in 1144 the 1st recorded Ritual Murder Accusation was brought against them in Norwich.  By the time of the 3rd Crusade from 1189 to 1190, there were riots all over the country causing much bloodshed, especially in London and York where their business bonds were burned.  
The Magna Carta was signed on June 15, 1215.  It contained 3 clauses about Jews.
In particular, their moneylending activities was the main concern. "It means that the document not only has enormous significance for English history, but also epitomises the privileges and problems of medieval Anglo-Jewry."  When their legal status was formalized, they were described as "chattels" of the king and physically belonging to him. In fact, like property, the king could mortgage his entire Jewry when needing to raise revenue. He could also tax them directly without permission of Parliament.  

The Crown's fiscal power over Jews meant that it was in the king's interest to ensure their safety, although more for his benefit than theirs. The total subservience of the Jews to the Crown was codified in graphic detail by John's son, Henry III, in his Mandate to the Justices of 1253, which declared: "No Jew remain in England unless he do the king's service, and that from the hour of birth every Jew, whether male or female, serve Us in some way".

William encouraged Jewish migration to England for two reasons. First, it was obviously useful having people who were both French speakers and loyal to him. On the continent, Jews tended to be an urban population, not tied to the land and farms, much more mobile than most sections of society, and so were more amenable to uprooting and crossing the English Channel  Many Jews performed a very useful economic function as moneylenders. 
To keep this from happening again,  which would cause a loss to the Exchequer, a system of registration of Jewish debts were set up in 1194 with Archae or chirograph chests in all the principal cities under the control of a central EXCHEQUER OF THE JEWS.  This was a systematic exploitation of Jewish resources by mercies taxation during the reigns of John (1199-1216) and Henry III (1216-1277).  
The enforced sternness of Jewish creditors in exacting their dues resulted in growing unpopularity evidenced in the Ritual Murder case of HUGH OF LINCOLN IN 1255 and the attacks made on them during the Barons' Wars from 1263-1265.   Then came the competition of the Italian bankers which made the Jewish services superfluous.  The rights of the Jews were being   continually restricted from 1269 onward and by 1290, they were expelled from the country.   What anti-Semites would do would be to attack Jews for wanting Christian blood in the making of matzos, the bread eaten during Passover, a Spring holiday.  What anti-Semites didn't know was that Jews would never ever eat any type of blood let alone human.  Their strict Kosher laws see to that.  They do not to this day even eat blood of a cow when eating beef.  Kosher meat is salted and rinsed so as to remove all blood.  

Throughout Jewish history, Jews were kept from entering many areas of commerce due to anti-Semitism.  They were allowed to loan money-a profession considered  a vile profession by the Christians, and that was about all.  Some became so skilled that rulers of countries came to them when they needed money.  
Dick Whittington, known for the story
with his cat.
Who were the Jews allowed on the sly to stay?  Jews were known to be the best doctors in England.  Various English monarchs had required their services.  Even Dick Whittington (1354-1423) arranged for a Jewish doctor, Samson de Mirabeau, to care for his wife.   Spanish and Portuguese Jews (called the nasty name, Marranos) today called anusim, also worked discrectly among London's financial community.  There were about 40 Jewish families in Elizabethan London.  Some of them were even known to Shakespeare (1564-1616), but they had to keep a very low profile.  With Shakespeare's prejudice against Jews, possibly someone wasn't careful enough, as his feelings came out in his plays.  It would take a long time before a Jew was presented favorably on the English  stage.  

The Jews held their services of Friday nights and Saturday mornings and holidays in a private house owned by Alvaro Mendes.   Solomon Ben Yaʿesh (AKA Ibn Yaʿish or Abenæs and Alvaro Mendès) was born in Tavira, Portugal in 1520 and died in Istanbul in 1603. A wealthy and influential Jewish statesman and diplomat, he worked to stymie Spain at the height of its power by engineering an alliance between England and the Ottoman Empire. The man who later received the title of duke of Mytilene was born to a marrano (anusim) family in Portugal as Alvaro Mendès, a name which most Europeans would continue to use with him throughout his life. In his youth, Mendès worked as an apprentice to a goldsmith before going to India in 1545 to manage his parents’ affairs and making his own large fortune in the diamond mines of the kingdom of Narsinga, near present-day Chennai (formerly Madras).
Upon his return to Portugal, Mendès became an intimate of King João III (r. 1521– 1557), who made him a knight of the Order of Santiago (Saint James of Compostela).  
Oliver Cromwell 1599-1658
During the Commonwealth, a distinct change of attitude took place due to theological and economic reasons.  This shows up in the comment that Oliver Cromwell wrote in 1654: "I desire from my heart, I have prayed for it, I have waited for this day to see union and right understanding between Godly people-Scots, English, Jews, Gentiles, Presbyterians, Independents, Anabaptists and all..."All" evidently did not include Catholics in that day and age, however.  "Oliver Cromwell was an English military and political leader. He served as Lord Protector of the Commonwealth of England, Scotland, and Ireland from 1653 until his death."

By this time, Marranos (Anusim) were prosperous merchants and financiers and were living on  Fenchurch Street and the St. Mary Axe area of London and had a house, used as a synagogue, on Creechurch Lane.  Authorities in charge of making sure Jews were did not live in England, their ICE counterpart, and military intelligence. turned a blind eye.  That's because Jews were a valuable link to continental mercantile and military intelligence.  

Cromwell appreciated the potential economic value to the country of a more open society, where Continental Jews could operate freely.  He also held a religious belief in scriptures (Daniel 7:7 and Deuteronomy 28:64 that Jews had to be scattered to all corners of the world before the Messiah would return.   He knew that Augustine of Hippo in the 4th century had emphasized that God then intended to convert the Jews en masse in time for the LAST TRUMP.  The Last Days loomed  large in Puritan thinking.  and he must have been a Puritan, same group of religionists who sailed in the Mayflower from Holland-exiles from England, in 1620.  Being the end of days was imminent, he knew that Jews had their part to play in these times.  Jews had recently set foot in America;  it just remained to bring them back to England for biblical prophesy to be fulfilled.  

Many Sephardic Jews had been living in Holland while trading and had created companies.  Rabbi Menasseh ben Israel was a highly respected member of the Jewish community in Amsterdam.  He was aware of how England's attitude towards Jews had been changing so he appealed to the tender-heartedness of Oliver Cromwell.  The rabbi was also encouraged by the practical arguments of JohnThurloe in that a British trading empire in the Atlantic would be greatly assisted by the Jews' inside information on the main rivals;   the Spanish, Portuguese and Dutch.  

Cromwell held a 5-day conference in the Council Chamber in Whitehall, attendead by theologians, lawyers, Members of Parliamaent, merchants and other interested parties.  The subjects for discussion was:
   1. Was it lawful for Jews to return?  
  2. If so, on what terms?  
The answer:
   1.  The Jewish expulsion was by royal decree.  There was no legal reason why they could not return.
  2. All old prejudices came to the surface with this answer.  
        A.  The Jews would try to CONVERT CHRISTIANS!  Yes, this is the excuse they used.  Jews had been stopped from trying to convert others in the year 300 in the first meeting of Christians!  
           1. Jews really wanted to convert St Paul's into a synagogue.
       B.  English trade and traders would wilt under Jewish competition.

Cromwell realized this wasn't going to be easy.  He couldn't give a straightforward declaration of support.  So he adopted an English compromise.  He disbanded the conference and said that Parliamaent would consider the conference's advice, then let it be known that the Jewish presence was legitimate.  

The result was that Sephardic Jews did gradually emigrate to England, mainly from Spain, Portugal and Amsterdam.  Ashkenazi Jews came from Hamburg and the south of France.  In London they formerly established a synagogue at Creechurch Lane in 1657 where 5 years later had a congregation of 100 men and boys.                                                        
Samuel Pepys: 1633-1703  was an administrator of the navy of England and Member of Parliament who is most famous for the diary he kept for a decade while still a relatively young man

Samuel Pepys, a Gentile,  attended on October 14, 1663 and was shocked to see the disorder of laughing, sporting and confusion instead of attention to a lecturer.  Was he a spy for the city?  He didn't realize that he had walked in on the holiday of Simchat Torah, the one festival here Jews were allowed to let their hair down, to sing, dance, drink and generally misbehave.  This was a happy holiday of celebrating the  finishing of reading the Torah (Pentateuch) in the congregation each week.  Congregants take out all the Scrolls of the law and carry them 7 times or more round the synagogue, sometimes with dances which may be continued for hours.  The last section of Deuteronomy is read by someone.  At first I thought the writer was talking about Purim, another happy holiday we have that fits his description even better.  

Now the Jews were able to buy land for a Jewish cemetery, their 1st time.  This happened just in time, because the GREAT PLAGUE started in 1665 and they had 21 victims to bury.  Samuel Pepys reported the panic that started when the wealthy , including the physicians, fled the city which now numbered over 400,000.  One disaster followed another.  
London's Great Fire, September 2, 1666.
Jews were allowed to return in 1656, so had 10 safe years. 
The next year the GREAT FIRE swept through London.  Many Londoners blamed God, Catholics or foreigners.  It all started as an accident in a baker's shop on Pudding Lane and was fanned by a gusting wind.  England had a man with the title of Medieval Warren of Streets and Building plots, and it's a wonder he survived the crowd because of the complex land-ownership and the determined occupants.   The fire actually cleansed as much as it destroyed.  

Out of the ashes rose Wren's St. Paul's and the spires of his churches which soared over the city until the Blitz of WWII with the beginning in September 1939.  

The Jewish community  expanded and by 1673 the Creechurch Lane synagogue housed 174 men and 84 women.  They were prosperous merchants, bankers and dealers in precious stones , Sephardim Jews who had established  themselves .

New Jewish immigrants came in, the Ashkenazim arrived from central and eastern Europe.  They were less well educated and earned their living as peddlers, street traders and rag merchants.  By 1690  many Jews were living in London  so that they established their own synagogue not far from the sephardim one in Duke's Place, Aldgate.  

At the end of the 17th century, there were 1,000 Jews in London.  In 1701 the Sephardim opened a new synagogue in Bevis Marks around the corner from  Creechurch Lane.  It was a magnificant building and has survived, except for some IRA bomb damage-with both the building and the bomb being legacies of Oliver Cromwell.  

Therefore, Jews were among the first people to create England, and they weren't safe.  They were kicked out because of their keen skills and their religion exactly 191 years later, not to be allowed back in again for 365 years.  
  How countries do change in their attitudes.  "The UN recommended 1,358 Syrian refugees for resettlement in Britain during the first quarter of 2018, of whom only four were Christians. Britain agreed to resettle 1,112 of these refugees, all of whom were Muslims, and refused to accept the Christians." 

Resource:  The Tribes of Britain by David Miles on who are we?  And where do we come from?p 366-339.

History of the Turkish Jews and Sephardim: Memories of a Past Golden by Elli 

The New Standard Jewish Encyclopedia

Tuesday, July 31, 2018

Things to Realize About Israel in View of Their New Nation-State Law

Nadene Goldfoot                                         
At the Knesset we see a menorah
" Israel passed a controversial new “nation-state law” last week that’s sparking both celebration and fierce debate over the very nature of Israel itself."  I don't see much changing in how this affects all the citizens outwardly.  It's what the government felt what was needed to be in print.

  1. It states that “the right to exercise national self-determination” in Israel is “unique to the Jewish people.”
  2. It establishes Hebrew as Israel’s official language, and Arabic — a language widely spoken by Arab Israelis —is given a “special status.”
  3. It establishes “Jewish settlement as a national value” and mandates that the state “will labor to encourage and promote its establishment and development.”                                     
    The Temple Mount
    Where Solomon's Temple first stood (961-920 BCE)
    Now Jews only have the Western Wall to pray  from
     Wall remains from King Herod (73 BCE-4 BCE)
    who built the wall, Wailing Wall/Kotel.
    Our History
Israel is the only Jewish state in the world.  Jews haven't had their own country since ancient Israel, established with king Saul existed in about 1030 BCE, over 3,000 years ago.    It continued until 70 CE when Jerusalem was destroyed by the Romans and the 2nd Temple of Solomon was destroyed.  Now, after having 6 million Jews murdered by Hitler, they have a state, and only make up 0.02% of the world's population.  They have taken special steps to secure their lives.  

There are at least 48 Muslim majority countries in the world.  About 10 have the state religion of Islam and are Israel's neighbors.  Egypt is the largest in population, then Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Yemen, Syria, Libya, Jordan, United Arab Emirates, Lebanon,  and the looming awaiting Palestine would be right next door in the historical Jewish Judea-Samaria called the West Bank.  Gaza is also a part of the Palestine creation, where the rockets, mortars and missiles are shot from into Israel, populated by Muslims, mostly Hamas terrorists.
In Jerusalem
Jews of the Diaspora have never thought of themselves as being nationalistic, having no nation since 70 CE.  They were of one religion, though, of Judaism.  Hitler tried to kill anyone with even 1/4 of their ancestry being Jewish.  We had said, we are a religion, not a nationality.  Here we are with the knowledge now that from what we know about Askenazi Jews, we are related to each other at least remotely. 
 I'm surprised when I don't share at least a small segment of DNA with another Jew.  The finding usually is 5th cousin to remote.  We happen to be an endogamous society.  I bet a great many of Arabs are also endogamous.  I see that many Muslim men share the J1 haplogroup we call the Cohen gene because so many of our Cohens and others have a similar J1 haplogroup that shows Jews have it, too.  Indeed, the Bible is correct in that we are "cousins."  There are only about 14 million Jews in this whole world.  We're a rare group made up of Ashkenazi, Sephari and Mizrachi. 6 million are in the USA; 6 million in Israel and 2 million elsewhere.   14 million of us.  Calcutta, India (now Kolkata) has a14.6 million population.  
Pashtuns visiting Jerusalem at the Wall
Many claim to be from tribe of Benjamin taken by Assyrians in 721 BCE
Found in Afghanistan, Pakistan and India
IDF now an Israeli of the Ingathering
Jewish Ethiopians waiting to be rescued came
in the 1980s.  They're not part of the 10 Lost Tribes
but more likely from days of Solomon wanting to return. 
We lost 10 of our 12 Tribes to the plundering Assyrians in 721 BCE and where did they wind up?  It looks like they were able to end their slavery in Afghanistan and Pakistan and places around there.  It has been prophesied that the time would come when there will be an ingathering of our people, and we are in the middle of that miracle right now.  Since Israel has been re-created on May 14, 1948, Jews living under dire circumstances and Jews wanting to keep their faith have been streaming back to Israel.  They went from a population of 650,000 to 6 million Jews today.  1.7 million Arabs also live with them in Israel and are citizens.   Rabbis say the in-gathering  of Jews is to happen before the coming of the Messiah.  Of course Judaism, Christianity and Islam have different views of a Messiah.                                                     
Signs in Israel come in 3 languages
Hebrew, Arabic and English
This tiny country's creation was for the Jewish people.  The 1st World War ended in 1917 where the Ottoman Empire had held Palestine for 400 years.  They had joined Germany's side in that war and lost the gamble.  The result was losing their empire.  It was in the hands of the Allies who decided that a Jewish Homeland would be made out of it and gave the mandate to do so to the English.  They also showed how little they thought of Jews no matter what the League of Nations had decided by giving away 80% of the promised land for Jews to an Arab of Saudi Arabia who turned it into Jordan eventually.  
So now Israel is made out of a teeny scrap of land compared to countries surrounding them, and this teeny piece is to be divided again to accommodate the Palestinians whose family had come from all the surrounding states seeking jobs after our Russian Jews had first come and started building in the 1st Aliyah.  
Druze IDF on guard
One of the Druze in the IDF
Their religion is from Islam.  About 120,000 live
in Israel living in the Galilee mainly in their own 18
villages and on Mt. Carmel.  They've fought with us since 1948.
There are Druze serving in the Knesset.  They have their own
religious courts and law. 
Other Druze live in Syria and Lebanon.  I read that a Druze Israeli feels hurt by the declaration.  Also, the Arab members of the Knesset are up in arms.  They must understand that they are a citizen of a unique country and are enjoying all the benefits of the Jews as equal citizens.  Arabs have the gift of not being expected to serve in the IDF if they don't feel they can do so.    What is changing for them?  Perhaps the Presidency and the Prime Minister position.  They'll lose all the rights they have with Israel if Israel is ever wiped out which their enemies keep trying to do.  That's why everyone is serving in the IDF; Israel's Defense Force.  They'll live as 2nd class citizens if they wind up in Syria or Lebanon.  This is Syria's President Assad's own personal problem.  He isn't a Sunni, like his other Arabs.  He's of a different group, the Alawites.    The Muslim Brotherhood tried to kill him.  

I have met a Druze lady in a meeting in the USA and admired her greatly.  She was a spokesman for Israel!  I would hate to hurt her or her community in any way.  I'm hoping this new law is not doing that.  I expect it's done to preserve what Israel has achieved.
Update:  with Professor Kontorovich.