|Emir Abdullah I of Transjordan April 11, 1921 to May 25, 1946; then King Abdullah I of Jordan April 3, 1949. He established the Hashemite Kingdom. Born February 1882, he died July 20, 1951 at age 69. |
He was assassinated. "Abdullah, while visiting Al-Aqsa Mosque in Jerusalem, was shot dead by a Palestinian from the Husseini clan." That would be the clan of Haj Amin al-Husseini, Grand Mufti of Jerusalem who went against Emir Feisal in accepting Jews back and creating their own state. His name was "Mustafa Shukri Ashshu, a 21-year-old tailor in the Old City. During the Arab-Jewish war he was a member of the "dynamite squad" attached to the Arab irregular forces which were associated with the ex-Mufti of Jerusalem and became bitter enemies of Abdullah."
Because of Abdullah I's help in World War I, the Brits, who held the mandate over Palestine, detached 80% of the land earmarked for the Jewish Homeland and gave it to him in 1921. "
Transjordan memorandum stated that the Mandate east of the Jordan River would be excluded from all the provisions dealing with Jewish settlement west of the Jordan River. " This was the deal they had made with Abdullah. Abdullah called it Transjordan. It incorporated all of Palestine east of the Jordan River. It was done so that the Emir Abdullah, whose family had been defeated in tribal warfare on the Arabian peninsula, would have a kingdom to replace the one he lost.
|Another famous view of King Abdullah I, King of Jordan|
In his memoirs, Abdullah wrote: " It is made quite clear to all, both by the map drawn up by the Simpson Commission and by another compiled by the Peel Commission, that the Arabs are as prodigal in selling their land as they are in useless wailing and weeping. " True, Arabs that owned any piece of land were more than happy to make a huge profit on it by selling it to Jews who were willing to pay exorbitant prices for it. Even King Abdullah leased land to the Jews. In fact, many leaders of the Arab nationalist movement, including members of the Muslim supreme Council, sold land to Jews. 1
In 1948 he annexed the eastern part of Cisjordan (Judea and Samaria-which he named the West Bank). This section had been designated by the UN as a separate state. Then he proclaimed the Kingdom of Jordan with himself as king. That's why he had helped Britain fight against the Ottoman Empire in the first place. He wanted a kingdom. He was a descendant of Mohammad, he claimed, "through Mohammad's daughter, Fatima and her husband who was Mohammad's cousin, Ali the 4th." The Hashemites didn't have a big population at this time, about the same as the Jews. Why they got 80% of Palestine is beyond me. The land of Palestine was to be the Homeland of the Jews, so they were left with only 20% mainly along the coast and mostly desert land.
It seems that his grandson does carry the J1 haplogroup some Arabs carry that is so close to matching the Cohen gene.
We know of the Palestinian refugee problem. The Arabs followed their leaders' advice of leaving their homes and going to a safer place since they were attacking the day old Israel. Even King Abdullah blamed Palestinian leaders for the refugee problem: " The tragedy of the Palestinians was that most of their leaders had paralyzed them with false and unsubstantiated promises that they were not alone; that 80 million Arabs and 400 million Muslims would INSTANTLY and MIRACULOUSLY come to their rescue.
What had happened was that panic had spread throughout Palestine, and the early trickle of refugees became a flood, numbering more than 200,000 by the time the provisional government declared the independence of the State of Israel. The native Arab population lacked leaders who could calm them; their spokesmen, such as the Arab Higher Committee, were operating from the safety of neighboring states and did more to arouse their f ears than to pacify them.
In one instance, the commander of Arab troops in Safed went to Damascus for safety. The following day, his troops withdrew from the town. The residents had realized that they were defenseless and had fled in panic. They had been fed all sorts of lies about Jews and what they would do to them. " These same Arabs had thought that they would win in an attack against the Jews and that they would win in less than the twinkling of an eye and that it would take no more than a day or two from the time the Arab armies crossed the border until all the colonies were conquered and the Jews would throw down their arms and cast themselves on their mercy."
King Abdullah considered the Palestinian Arabs and Jordanians one people. By 1950 he annexed Samaria and Judea and forbade the use of the term Palestine in official documents.
Samaria and Judea were never legally part of Jordan. It was to have been part of an independent Arab state in western Palestine according to the UN's 1947 partition plan. But the Jordanian army invaded and occupied it during the 1948 war. Only 2 governments, Great Britain (of course) and Pakistan (?) formally recognized the Jordanian takeover. The rest of the world, including the USA, never did. Then from 1950 to 1967, Jordan permitted terrorists to launch raids into Israel. When Jordan lost this land in 1967, they were supporting the Egyptian dictator, Gamal Abdel Nasser.
|King Hussein in 1997, son of Talal, b: November 14, 1935-d: February 7, 1999. He ruled from August 11, 1952 after his father abdicated till death.|
In 1956 Jordan joined Egypt and Syria with Nasser in command of all 3 armies and attacked Israel in another war, signing on October 25th by blockading the Suez Canal and Gulf of Aqaba to shipping. Israel attacked October 29, 1956. The Arabs had blockaded this against all laws for 6 years and was in violation of the Armistice Agreement. (p. 60 in M & F)
The PLO was founded June 2, 1964 in Jerusalem, actually created by the Arab League with Arafat as leader. Terrorist groups were set up in Jordan and Syria, Lebanon and Iraq. All of them received varying degrees of support from the host governments. Then they mushroomed after the Six-Day War of 1967.
In 1967, Hussein entered the Six-Day War against Israel along with all the other states but his army was defeated and Israel took over Judea and Samaria. Israel had begged him not to attack. Jordan attacked the western part of Jerusalem anyway. Within several days, the IDF had routed the Jordanians and drove them out of east Jerusalem. The city is now united as one. Samaria was the original Empire of Israel where their capital was Samaria, and now the whole piece is labeled as Samaria. Judea was the land allotted by Joshua for the tribe of Judah, the largest of the 12 tribes with the capital of Jerusalem.
After the Six-Day War, the Israelis found public school textbooks that had been used to educate Arab children in Judea and Samaria. They were full of racist and hateful portrayals of Jews: Such lies were--
1. The Jews are scattered to the the ends of the earth, where they live exiled and despised, since by their nature they are vile, greedy and enemies of mankind.
2. By their nature they were tempted to steal a land as asylum for their disgrace.
3. We shall expel all the Jews from the Arab countries.
4. Jews of our time are the descendants of the Jews who harmed the Prophet Muhammad. They betrayed him, they broke the treaty with him and joined sides with his enemies to fight him.
(This refers to a battle fought that has been thrown in my face by some of my Muslim friends as well, so many use this as a reason to hate us. They forget that they converted Jews in Saudi Arabia with the sword and had killed whole tribes of Jews in the act.)
5. The Jews in Europe were persecuted and despised because of their corruption, meanness and treachery.
( I note that they use facts and then distort it with their idea of as to why things happened. No doubt Europeans thought the same things.)
Because Israel was defending itself from aggression in the 1948 and the 1967 wars, international legal scholar Steven Schwebel wrote, "Israel has a better claim to sovereignty over Jerusalem than that of its Arab neighbors."
Moshe Dayan left the Temple Mount in Jordan's hands after the 1967 War, mostly to keep the peace between the two states. Muslim rights on the Temple Mount, the site of 2 major mosques, have not been infringed. Although it is the holiest site in Judaism, Israel has left the Temple Mount under the control of Muslim religious authorities who will not let Jews close. It they are seen moving their lips in prayer, they get arrested. Yet it is the site of the First and Second Temples.
In September 1970, Hussein expelled the PALESTINE LIBERATION ORGANIZATION (PLO) from his country. The term Black September (Arabic: أيلول الأسود; aylūl al-aswad) refers to the Jordanian Civil War that began in September 1970 and ended in July of 1971. It was a war between Arafat's PLO and Jordan's army under King Hussein. "The civil war sought to determine if Jordan would be ruled by the Palestine Liberation Organisation or the Hashemite Monarchy. In other words, the PLO had tried a take-over. The war resulted in the deaths of thousands of people, the vast majority Palestinian. Armed conflict ended with the expulsion of the PLO leadership and thousands of Palestinian fighters to Lebanon.
Israel was most helpful in 1970 when the USA asked for help in bolstering King Hussein's regime. Israel was willing to aid Amman, and movement of troops to the Jordanian border persuaded Syria to leave the tanks it had sent into Jordan to support the PLO forces. during Black September. The Soviets also saw that all the squadron leaders of the 6th Fleet landed in Israel to coordinate activities.
Between June 1967 and September 1970, the Jordanian army and the Palestinian terrorist organization collaborated in an attempt to harass Israel from Jordanian territory: Israeli villages in the Jordan Valley were frequently shelled and terrorists tried to infiltrate into Israeli-held territory. By 1970, Israel closed the Jordan cease fire line almost hermetically. Terrorist activities inside Israeli-controlled areas grew less and almost disappeared as they couldn't establish bases inside those areas. Since the Jordanian army crushed the PLO groups, the Jordanian front had been quiet.
The Yom Kippur War of October 6, 1973 was a surprise attack on Israel on their holiest day when they were fasting, from Egypt and Syria. Jordan also sent two armored brigades and three artillery units to support the Syrians, but their participation in the war was not done with vast enthusiasm – probably because King Hussein of Jordan had not been kept informed of what Egypt and Syria planned.
In 1977, a Jordanian teachers' manual for 1st graders used in Samaria and Judea instructed educators to "implant in the soul of the pupil the rule of Islam that if the enemies occupy even one inch of the Islamic lands, jihad (holy war) becomes imperative for every Muslim. It also says that the Jews plotted to assassinate Muhammad when he was a child.
In 1982, a social studies book said that Israel ordered the massacre of Palestinians in Sabra and Shatila, but does not mention the Christian Arabs who were the perpetrators.
Later he reconciled with Arafat, their leader. Hussein also acted as a protector of Judea and Samarian Arabs, but in 1988 announced that he was withdrawing from this role and leaving it to the PLO. He was allowing them to administer their own people.
In 1990 it was shown that Jordan voted against the USA 83% of the time at the UN. Israel voted with the USA 88% of the time, being America's top UN ally. In 1991, Jordan, Syria and Lebanon voted against Israel in the UN and voted to retain a resolution against her as did Saudi Arabia. The Arabs were voting to impugn the very birthright of the Jewish State.
Jordan had modernized its armed forces in recent years, and had them stationed all along its border with Israel during the Gulf conflict of Aug 2, 1990 to February 28, 1991. Jordan had built up its arms inventories and now boasts one of the Arab world's most modern arsenals to go along with the most professional officer corps in the Arab world. During the Gulf War, King Hussein went along with the Iraqis, arousing suspicions in Israel about his willingness to again join an eastern front.
However, Jews were never permitted to live in Jordan. Civil Law #6, which governed the Jordanian-occupied Judea-Samaria, states explicitly: "Any man will be a Jordanian subject if he is not Jewish." They have been as anti-Semitic as the other Arab states.
A peace treaty was signed on October 26, 1994 between Jordan and Israel. "The treaty guaranteed Jordan the restoration of its occupied land (approximately 380 square kilometers), as well as an equitable share of water from the Yarmouk and Jordan rivers. Moreover, the treaty defined Jordan’s western borders clearly and conclusively for the first time, putting an end" to the " claim that “Jordan is Palestine.” Jordanians look at this claim as dangerous and false. Only half of the population are Palestinians, not all.
|King Abdullah II, son of Hussein-King on February 7, 1999 at father's death. He was born on January 30, 1962, age 53 today.|
|Queen Rania of Jordan, parents Palestinian Arabs living in Kuwait, born August 31, 1970, now 45.|
One of the principal backers of Jordan since World War II has been the USA. An emergency loan of US$150 million dollars, approved in July 2013, helped affected households maintain access to healthcare services and basic household goods. Through the World Bank, they have loaned Jordan 500 million dollars for 2 Development Policy loans. Jordan has been hurting from taking in so many refugees from Syria and creating camps, and this will help. Last I heard was that they will not take Syrian men into Jordan proper, but will their mothers if they are staying with relatives as women are pretty safe.
"Both the Jordanian government (in the Treaty of Peace) and the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) (in its various agreements with Israel) declared the end of hostilities between themselves and Israel. These instruments are unequivocal. (The PLO has already gone against this, since equivocal means having uncertain nature and they have broken this agreement by siding with Hamas who are determined to destroy Israel and kill Jews.) In Jordan's case, we find that
Peace is hereby established between the State of Israel and the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan ... . They ... will refrain from the threat or use of force against each other and will settle all disputes between them by peaceful means.The king's statements set the tone for other members of the government, which maintains active and public contacts with Israelis. For example, the Jordanian ambassador, Marwan Mu‘ashir told the Israel lobby in May 1998, that his government "is committed to a full peace with Israel ... . Jordan is committed to continuously addressing the Israeli public with a clear message of peace, regardless of agreement or differences with the sitting government in Israel." The state-controlled radio and television reinforce the positive messages of the leaders."
Resource: The New Standard Jewish Encyclopedia, Jordan.
1. Myths and Facts-a concise record of the Arab-Israeli conflict by Drs Mitchell G. Bard, Joel Himelfarb