Tuesday, June 2, 2015

The Assyrians Are Attacking! Damascus Controls Israel ! Battles 3,000 Years Old!

 Nadene Goldfoot                                              

In western Asia lay Assyria, an ancient state with Semitic people who had an aggressive kingdom in the 20th century BCE (1900s BCE days).  They expanded quickly in the 13th and 10th centuries.  The successes of Kings David (1010-970 BCE)  and Solomon (961-920 BCE) against the Aramean states in Mesopotamia and Syria probably contributed to Assyria's recovery.

In 853 BCE, Shalmaneser III of Assyria attacked Ben-Hadad II of Damascus.  King Ahab of Israel supported him in the indecisive battle of Karkar.  Shalmaneser's 2nd attack in 848 BCE  likewise failed, but after the liquidation of the house of Ahab in 842 BCE, his successor, King  Jehu, paid tribute, although Damascus itself held out in 841 BCE.                                                                

Middle East 830 BCE

Damascus's capture in 806 BCE freed Israel from Damascus' control.  In 803-2, Adad-Nirari III (810-783 BCE) forced the submission of Ben-Hadad III of Damascus.  Then King Jehoash of Israel had successes and also his son, Jeroboam II against Ben-Hadad III  due to the passivity of Shalmaneser IV (782-772  BCE). who was under pressure from the kings of Ararat and Assur-Dan III (772-759 BCE).

After the death of King Jeroboam II of Israel, King Uzziah became head of the Western anti-Assyrian alliance.  The Assyrian decline which made this possible was ended by Tiglath-Pileser III (745-727 BCE) who overthrew the Syrian confederacy.
In 735, King Ahaz of Judah  was attacked by King Pekah of Israel in alliance with Damascus, Philistia and Edom, so Ahaz appealed for help to Tiglath-Pileser.  You see what happened.  Israel lost its territory in what was later called Transjordan and Galilee, while Philistia, Tyre, Moab and Edom became Assyrian provinces.                                                        
Ancient battle scene showing Assyrian soldiers storming a fortification
Rare picture of Assyrian leading away Israelites from Lachish in Judah.  Nebuchadnezzar destroyed this city. Babylonians also threatened Lachish.  (reference with many pictures -http://www.bible-history.com/assyria_archaeology/archaeology_of_ancient_assyria_archaeological_discoveries.html)
The attempt of King Hoshea  of Israel in 726 BCE   to throw off the yoke led to Shalmanesser V's siege of Samaria led to its capture in 721 BCE by his successor, Sargon.  Sargon annexed the country, deported 27,290 Israelites to Assyria and Media and replaced them with Syrian and Babylonian prisoners.  
Assyrian symbol of Ashur, King of the gods of Assyria 

Sargon, King of Assyria (721-712 BCE)  seized the throne when Shalmaneser III died during the siege of Samaria which he brought to a successful ending for Assyria, exiling many of the inhabitants.  In 720 BCE he defeated a military alliance which included the remnants of the Israelites of Samaria.  He had one victory after another.  In the end he was assassinated and was succeeded by Sennacherib,(705-681 BCE) son of Sargon II.  He was the Assyrian king constantly at war with Elam and Babylon.  When the kings of Phoenicia and Judah, led by King Hezekiah, rose in revolt, Sennacherib invaded Judah in 701 BCE and captured 46 cities, but not Jerusalem.  He took many prisoners. Slings were used in battle and sling stones found among the ruins of Lachish, a Judean city destroyed by the Assyrians in 701 B.C., can be seen today in the British Museum in London.   Sennacherib  had led 2 campaigns against Judah with the first resulting in King Hezekiah's surrender while the 2nd was cut short by the plague.  .                                                                                                 
Assyrian in chariot shooting bow and arrow at lions

                                                      Last Kings of Israel

                                                    Ahab               (876-853 BCE)
                                                    Uzziah/Ahaziah (853 BCE)
                                                    Jehoram           (853-843 BCE)
                                                    Jehu               (843-816 BCE)
                                                    Jehoahaz       (816-800 BCE)
                                                    Jehoash         (800-785 BCE) 
                                                    Jeroboam II  (785-745 BCE) 
                                                   Pekahiah       (736-735 BCE)
                                                    Pekah           (735-730 BCE)
                                                    Hoshea        (730-721 BCE)

                                                721 BCE was when Assyria attacked Israel.

1. King Hoshea (730-721 BCE) was the last king of Israel because of this;  the 19th king after King Solomon.  He ruled from 732 to 724 BCE.  He had conspired against
2. King Pekah (735-730 BCE) and assassinated him and then had seized the throne.  That wasn't very nice, but then things like that happened in those ancient days.  You can check it out in the original reference of II Kings 15:30).  Pekah, a king for 5 years was possibly of Gileadite origin.  He was the captain of his predecessor                                              
King Pekahiah of Israel and a Cohen 
3.  King Pekahiah (736-5 BCE)  whom he killed after a conspiracy, seizing his throne. Pekah may have killed him because of his apparent opposition to the popular desire to resist Assyria.   He had allied himself with
4. Rezin of Aram-Dammesek and attacked Judah, but their initial success led
5. King Ahaz (735-720 BCE) of Judah to appeal for help to
6. Tiglath-Pileser III of Assyria..  Tiglath P  then invaded the allied kingdom, abolished Aram-Dammesek as a state, and stripped Israel of Galilee and Gilead.  Pekah was subsequently murdered by Hoshea.
According to the Tanakh "Bible" Pekah reigned for 20 years, but this is difficult to reconcile with Assyrian records.

Assyrian sources relate that Hoshea ascended the throne with Assyrian help.  His kingdom was confined to the surroundings of Mt. Ephraim.  Eventually, he rebelled against Assyria, and was imprisoned by  Shalmanesser who then besieged and captured Samaria, the capital of the kingdom of Israel. then, for Jerusalem was the capital of Judah.

 At the same time down in  The Kingdom of Judah, which had been the southern portion of Israel before Solomon had died, were ruled by  kings Hezekiah  and Manasseh (720-692) as rulers. King Hezekiah was able to hold out and got moderate terms by paying tribute and ceding some territory.  Later, Sennacherib was forced by a plague in his army to return home.  Manasseh of Judah was exiled to Assyria in 652 BCE as a result of complicity in a plot against Ashsurbanipal (669-626 BCE).  After this time, Assyria declined rapidly and was succeeded by Babylon.   Judah would continue on with 6 more kings ruling Judah until their last, which was Zedekiah (597-586).
Jews leaving Jerusalem in 70 CE-Roman capture and burning
The kingdom of Judah was renamed by the Romans as Judea when it was their vassal kingdom and then it became a province which came under the Roman rule in 63 CE.  It was renamed Palaestina (Prima and Secunda) in 135 when the Jewish General Bar Kochkba fell after fighting the Romans for 3 years- the longest anyone had held out against Romans.

Resource:  The New Standard Jewish Encyclopedia
http://www.bible-history.com/assyria_archaeology/archaeology_of_ancient_assyria_archaeological_discoveries.html, EXCELLENT, DETAILS, PICTURES 

No comments:

Post a Comment