|Taliban and Pashtuns in Afghanistan|
Central Asia has some inhabitants who believe they were descended from the Lost Ten Tribes of Israel.
Descendants of King of Israel Saul
1 King of Israel Saul b: in abt 10000 BCE
. 2  Michal the First, Daughter of Saul
..... + King of Israel David b: in 1000 BCE Bethlehem
. *2nd Husband of  Michal the First, Daughter of Saul:
. 2 King at Mahanaim Eshbaal
. 2 Merab
..... + King of Israel David b: in 1000 BCE Bethlehem
. 2 Jeremiahin Pashtun
..... 3 Afghana Pashtun, Commander in Chief
|Jewish cemetery in Herat, Afghanistan|
As far as all Afghanis goes, —A study by The Genographic Project has found that the majority of all known ethnic Afghans share a unique genetic heritage derived from a common ancestral population that most likely emerged during the Neolithic revolution and the formation of early farming communities. Through detailed DNA analysis of samples from 27 provinces, the Genographic team found the inter-Afghan genetic variability to be mostly attributed to the formation of the first civilizations in the region during the Bronze Age. (That would be from about 3150 BCE.) [from "WASHINGTON (March 28, 2012)].... "We now know that major cultural evolutions and prehistoric technological advancements, followed later by migrations and conquests, have left traceable records in the Afghans’ DNA, giving us an amazing insight into the origin of this population,” said Haber."
|RASHI-aka Rabbi Solomon Yitzhaki (1040-1105)|
|Ghenghis Khan-c1162 to August 18, 1227|
There actually have been 2 Talmuds. One is the Babylonian and the other is the Palestinian. The Babylonian is the more popular one. They are collections of the records of academic discussions and of the judicial administration of Jewish LAW by the generations of scholars and jurists in many academies and in more than one country during several centuries after 200 CE. This is when the book, the Mishnah was completed, also. Each Talmud is made up of the Mishnah together with a gemara. which is both a commentary on and a supplement to the Mishnah. Both Talmuds contain non-legal or aggadic digressions. The writers mentioned in the Palestinian Talmud all lived before 400 CE. Those of the Babylonian Talmud lived before 500 CE. These are like the last words on Jewish law and rational thinking.
In the 20th century, Jews arrived from Central Asia fleeing Russian repression, and later there were those fleeing from communist threat.
There were some 40,000 Jews in Afghanistan a century ago. Among them were many prosperous merchants. After 1870 there were several successive governmental measure of repression on these Jews. In the mid 1930's, it seems the hand of Hitler seeped into to this country as well and these measures, as those happening in Germany, reduced the Jewish population. In 1948, about 5,000 Jews were living in Afghanistan. Nearly all emigrated to Israel after the foundation of the State in 1948, though some did move to India for economic reasons. In the 70s, some 300 Jews were still in Afghanistan, and most left after the Soviet invasion of 1979. Only about 50 Jews lived in Afghanistan by 1990. So go the Jews, also goes the good of the state. Look what's happened since then. By 2007, there was one Jew left in Kabul, Zablon Simintov,* who continued to take care of his synagogue.
Jews dressed quite similar like the surrounding Islamic population. They spoke Judea-Persian instead of Urdu which is not a language in Afghanistan Pasthos, but of people including Pashtos in India. The Dari language is similar to Farsi and is spoken so at that time either Dari or Pastho may have been spoken by Jews in Afghanistan. They used Hebrew in the synagogue and in religious studies, just like Americans do.
|Young Afghani-American Jewish lady|
Her mother and family immigrated from Afghanistan to the USA in 1964 along with other Jews. Her ancestors had left good but simple living conditions, nothing fancy. Their homes were considered middle-class. Her grandfather and great grandfather had been in the textile business. Afghan Jews left their country because they wanted to have a better life and education for their children. Perhaps they saw the eventual Taliban developing and fighting in their future.
|Taliban terrorism of which some Pashtuns have joined|
Today's modern war is taking place in Afghanistan where Russians fought and now Americans fight terrorists such as ISIS. The most recent error was in Americans bombing a hospital in Kunduz in northern Afghanistan belonging to Doctors Without Borders, thinking they were hitting ISIS terrorists. Afghanistan has turned into a battleground.
At any rate, "Thus, Itzhak Ben-Zvi, the second President of Israel, in his 1957 book The Exiled and the Redeemed, writes that Hebrew migrations into Afghanistan began: "with a sprinkling of exiles from Samaria who had been transplanted there by Shalmaneser, King of Assyria (719 BC) [...] The Afghan tribes, among whom the Jews have lived for generations, are Moslems who retain to this day their amazing tradition about their descent from the Ten Tribes. It is an ancient tradition, and one not without some historical plausibility... if the Afghan tribes persistently adhere to the tradition that they were once Hebrews and in course of time embraced Islam, and there is not an alternative tradition also existent among them, they are certainly Jewish." (p. 176)
In the 2000s, the "lost tribes" hypothesis was popularized by Shalva Weil, an anthropologist at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, In 2010, The Observer under the title "Pashtun clue to lost tribes of Israel" claimed that "Some leading Israeli anthropologists believe that, of all the many groups in the world who claim a connection to the 10 lost tribes,
the Pashtuns, or Pathans, have the most compelling case" and on a planned study on the ancestry of the Afridi Pashtuns (while noting that "A previous genetic study in the same area did not provide proof one way or the other"), also citing Weil as saying "Of all the groups, there is more convincing evidence about the Pathans than anybody else, but the Pathans are the ones who would reject Israel most ferociously. That is the sweet irony".
Not entirely, Dr. Weil. A few are seeing their history and are cheering for Israel. They're sharing their information with each other. The tide may be turning.
H. Shah, Pashto