Monday, December 1, 2014

Who Are We Jews? What Is The Cohen Gene?

Nadene Goldfoot                                                          
Jews are people from Abraham who was born in the 2nd millennium BCE or over 4,000 years ago.  Abraham was referred to as an Ibri in the Bible.  Ibri translates into Hebrew in English.  Ibri means "from the other side."  Abraham and his people had migrated from the other side (east) of the Euphrates River to arrive in Ur, Ur of Chaldees, Sumeria, Mesopotamia, which would be in today's Iraq.  There seems to be another UR at the mouth of the Euphrates and Tigris River, a port Ur, perhaps the original one from which the Ibri came from.  See the video listed below about Ur.  

Abraham had a son by his wife/niece Sarah named Isaac.  Isaac had a son named Jacob and Israel was his alternate name.  Jacob had 12 sons (by 4 women of which 2 were wives Leah and Rachel,  and 2 were their handmaidens-Bilhah and Zilpah) who were the origins of the 12 tribes of Jacob.  Their descendants were known as the children of Israel, or the Israelite Nation or the Israelite People.

On forms when entering the USA, people of the Jewish faith were recorded as Hebrew, not as Jews.

When Abraham saw that Sarah was not pregnant, and he had been told he would be the father of nations, he and Sarah decided he should know her maid, Hagar, princess of Egypt, and by her he had Ishmael who left his family when older along with Hagar at Sarah's request.  It wasn't working out.  Ishmael seemed to be jealous of Isaac and teased him greatly.  Hagar was acting like a first wife and treating Sarah poorly.  Sarah was not only Abraham's wife, but also his niece.  What she said counted.
The word "Jew" comes from Judah, the son of Israel.  Judah as the most prominent of the 12 tribes.  It was the largest tribe.       The kingdom was named Israel.  Their kings were King Saul, King David and King Solomon.  When King Solomon died in 920 BCE, Israel divided into 2 kingdoms; Israel of the larger northern half and Judah where the tribe of Judah lived in the southern half.          
About 200 years later in 722 BCE, the Northern Kingdom of Israel was led into captivity when the Assyrians swooped down and attacked them.
                                             Blue and yellow portions; Jewish Homeland

Today, the remaining tribe, Judah and some of Benjamin that joined them, are called Jews.  They are Jewish, their faith Judaism, their language Hebrew, and their land, regained on May 14, 1948, was recalled and named Israel.  It is just a speck of the nation it once was.
The Jews went through unique times.  Jacob's family  entered Egypt with 70 people and were held in captivity in Egypt for 400 years which includes their move into the land because of a drought and the need for food.  They most likely were kept together as a  group, eating and sleeping in the same area apart from other slaves simply because of clearing space for newcomers would have been in one large area.  They all spoke Hebrew, so that would keep them socially together. They picked up the personality trait of being stiff necked, meaning that they don't easily change their minds about things.  This is why G-d selected them to carry his message.   One can figure a generation is 25 years.  Back then it would have been less, most likely, and they were intermarrying their own  tribal members, the children of Jacob.  When they left with Moses, They were numbering 600,000 and this included  other slaves apart from Jacob's descendants.

The country of the USA is only 238 years old.  Every 25 years brings on vast changes in thoughts, clothing, homes, and education.  One cannot imagine being held as captives for 400 years.  Moses left Egypt with a wild and primitive group of slaves bearing the genes of a special and wise man, Abraham who bore the Ydna of J1.  When given the opportunity of Moses not watching them, they broke out into wild cavorting around a golden calf that they made while waiting for him to come down from Mt. Sinai.  This all had to change.  They had much to learn.  It was no doubt behavior picked up when held as slaves recently.  After all, now they were free men and women.  They no longer had to work every single day of their lives.  They were happy!  After the period of Abraham of living around 2,000 BCE down to Moses of the 1300's and 1200's they had forgotten their original belief in one G-d from living in an Egyptian environment of many gods.  700 years and a new world of thought changed all that to allow them to made a golden calf.  .
                                                               Esau  and   Jacob, twins

The J1 haplotype will continue in the population of Israel and of the surrounding Arabs who were the children of Ishmael.  Ishmael's parents were Abraham and Hagar, his wife Sarah's handmaiden.   Later J1 will also be found in  Jacob's twin brother, Esau, who did not follow this special family but went off on his own.  They were not identical twins.

It took Moses and the 600,000 Israelites and others  40 years to get to Canaan, the land Abraham had moved to when he had left Ur and where G-d said they were to live.   Not only is it hard to move that many people, but Moses needed time for the older ones to die off so he could enter with the youngest, educated by him and not with a slave mentality anymore but that of warriors. He wanted them to enter their new land with the knowledge he was teaching them of one god as they were about to enter Canaan, still the land of many gods.  He couldn't allow them to slip back into such religious ideas again.  They had to be ready.

The other night I was watching History 2 on TV and their presentation was about Jews and Israel and the Ark of the Covenant.  They had their information confused and said that the tribe of Judah was one of the 10 Lost Tribes.  Hardly.  We Jews are not lost.  We're the ones who survived for over 4,000 years and are still here to fulfill the prophecy that Israel would be rebuilt and that the lost tribes would return.  This is happening already.  People are coming forth and proving their unique history and often times their DNA as well to show that they were the lost ones.  Of course they say that they were not lost.  They knew where they were.

It's thought that the some of the Pashto/Pashtuns of Afghanistan, Pakistan and India were originally some of the Lost Tribes.  That needs further exploration.  Most all have become Muslims today.

People have been found to have originated in Africa and have continually moved westward. Eve's ancestors in southern Africa had daughters who settled in separate communities in West Africa and NW Africa.  L1 is the earliest mitochondrial lineage and appeared 145,000 to 170,000 years ago, so that shows how far back homo sapiens have been walking around this planet.   It may have had something to do with the climate changes, food sources and just following the sun which sets in the west.

Abraham, carrying the J1 haplotype, is found to have arisen 10,000 to 15,000 years ago in the Fertile Crescent and includes the Jews, Arabs, Armenians and Kurds.  It is found at its highest frequencies in Iran and Iraq, where it originated (from east of the Euphrates River.) Then it was carried by traders into Europe, central Asia, India and Pakistan.

 Jews of today also carry J2 and this is believed to be associated with the spread of agriculture during the Neolithic Period from Anatolia, Turkey.  It's found throughout central Asia, the Mediterranean, and south into India.  The majority of haplogroup J is not in Jewish people of today, but the majority of the Jewish men of today do fall into J.  The Cohen Modal Haplotype  is found in haplogroup J1, which would be from Moses's brother, Aaron, who was selected by Moses to be the Cohen, a hereditary position with stipulations on it of continuance.

Jews are found to carry other Ydna as well.  Q1b1a is found in 5% of Jews and has been located around Ur.  E3b evolved in the Middle East before spreading into the Mediterranean during the Pleistocene Neolithic expansion.  It's also found in many Arab populations and in areas around the Mediterranean, in East and North Africa among the Berbers, and in SE Europe.  E itself originated in Africa 50,000 years ago, sharing a common ancestry with D.  G and G2 originated along the eastern edge of the Middle East or in India or Pakistan 30,000 years ago and has gone into central Asia, Europe and the Middle East.  The G2 branch is found most often in the Caucasus, Balkans, Italy and Middle East. 7% of Ashkenazi Jews carry this.  

Women who lived in this area are found with several haplotypes.  They also have their own J, J1 and J2.  For the women, theirs originated about 45,000 years ago in central Asia and is also associated with the spread of farming and herding in Europe during the Neolithic Period beginning 10,000 years ago.  It's common in the Near East, Europe, the Causcasus, North Africa and the Middle East and among Jews.  J2 is more localized in the Mediterranean.

Other haplotypes  of mtdna and the women who carry this and hand it down to both their sons and daughters are H who came from a population expansion of 20,000 years ago and is also common in the Middle East.  K is found in many Ashkenazi who carry a subclade of this haplogroup.  K is a subbranch of U which first appeared in the early Holocene Epoch. The Holocene Epoch covers the last 11,700 years.   My grandmother from Lithuania/Poland carried W which appeared in the western Ural mountains and the eastern Baltic area, though it is also found in India.  It's not one of the original 7 found by researcher Brian Sykes who authored the book, THE SEVEN DAUGHTERS OF EVE.    T originated in Mesopotamia or Anatolia, Turkey  10,000 years ago and moved north with the spread of farming.  It's most commonly found around the eastern Baltic Sea and in the Urals.

Abraham and his father, Terah,  and all the rest of the Ibris (Hebrews)  came from east of the Euphrates River which seems to be Assyria.  Then in 722 BCE, the Assyrians attacked Israel and took away the northern tribes of Israel which contained 10 of the 12 tribes.  200 years later, the Babylonians had taken over Assyrians and they came and attacked Judah and took people away.  They in turn were also attacked by another who allowed those captured to return to Israel and rebuild the Temple.  The Romans attacked Judah and they burned down the Temple in 70 CE.  Now we have returned once more, and G-d willing, this time for keeps.  Our lost tribes are  returning.

Our return brings about thoughts found in Jews, Christians and Muslims of the Messiah, which is a different idea in each religion.  "The word is derived from the Hebrew word, Mashiach, which means anointed with oil.  The Messiah in Jewish thought was never conceived of as a Divine Being.  As G-d's anointed representative, the Messiah would be a person who would bring about the political and spiritual redemption of the people Israel through the ingathering of the Jews to their ancestral home of Eretz Yisrael and the restoration of Jerusalem to its spiritual glory.  He would bring about an era marked by the moral perfection of all mankind and the harmonious coexistence of all peoples free of war, fear, hatred and intolerance."

 So one, the physical rebirth of Israel, is to bring about the other-peace.  So far it's been just the opposite, but we shall see.  First the discourse, and then the peace, no doubt.  This has been the beginning of the process of redemption that will lead to peace.

Though most of the Western globe seems to be atheistic these days, stories from the Bible are still popular.  Exodus: God and Kings  has been redone and will soon be seen again  in the theater. starting December 12th.    The Red Tent, originally a book, from Lifetime TV will be shown on Sunday's TV December  7th, which is about Dinah, the only daughter mentioned of Jacob. She is raped by a man in the area and the story should be about how her brothers react to this.

Resource: Abraham's Children, race, identity, and the DNA of the Chosen People by Jon Entine
To Be a Jew by Rabbi Hayim Halevy Donin, pages 7-8.
Update: on the city of Ur

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