|King Solomon's Temple (961-920 BCE)|
|Golden Dome of the Rock-built by Caliph Abd al-Malik c738 CE supposedly in same spot as the Jewish 1st and 2nd Temples|
|Jerusalem viewing the mosque, Dome of the Rock, and Western Wall|
King Solomon built the first Temple as a shrine for the Ark, sacred vessels and offerings with a court for worshippers. It had a hall, shrine and inner sanctum (holy of holies). He built it on Mt. Moriah in Jerusalem that became part of the Old City. Since he was a king of peace, he was allowed by G-d to build it. His father, King David, was not allowed to do this as he was a man of war. It was completely destroyed by Nebuchadnezzar in 586 BCE.
The 2nd Temple was rebuilt from 538 to 515 BCE.Vassal King Herod I (73 BCE-4 BCE )built some of the reconstructions that were carried out that continued from the time of Simon the Just, Judah the Maccabee and Simon the Hasmonean Herod expanded the Temple courtyard. He built the wall, now called the Western Wall. Herod was an evil man, appointed king of Judea by the Roman Senate, but he did rebuild the Temple in Jerusalem on a magnificent scale. In the siege of Jerusalem during the Roman War, it served as a center of military activity, and was destroyed by the conquering Romans in 70 CE. Jerusalem was then turned into a Roman colony and renamed Aelia Capitolina in Latin. One million Jews were killed in this rebellion of the Great Revolt.
A Roman Temple was later built on the site of the Jewish Temple. In 63 BCE, the Romans occupied Judah. By 70 CE they took Jerusalem and destroyed the Temple. In 132 CE, the Jewish General Bar Kokhba attacked the Romans who had taken Jerusalem and fought for 3 years in trying to regain it. He was killed in 135 CE in the Judean hills at Bethar. .
|Aerial view of Temple Mount|
1. Dome of the Rock 7. Western Wall Tunnel and northern entrance to it
2. Platform surrounding the Dome of the Rock 8. St. Stephen's Gate (Lion's Gate)
3. Al-Aqsa Mosque 9. Mughrabi Gate
4. Dome of the Spirits 10. Solomon's Stables
5. Golden Gate 11. Via Dolorosa
6. Western Wall
Muhammad was born in 570 CE and died in 632 CE. His oldest friend was Abu Bakr who became the 1st Caliph from 632 to August 23, 634 CE. The first thing he had to do was to subdue the Arabian tribes.
Along comes the 2nd Calif, Omar or Umar, who ruled from 634 to 644. During his reign, several regions with ancient Jewish communities were conquered; not only Judah but all of the land that had been renamed as Palestine by the Romans in 135 BCE, Syria and Mesopotamia. On his orders, most of the Jews were expelled from northern Arabia. Many tribes had been living in Medina. To Omar is attributed a "covenant" with Jews and Christians which assured them protection in return for the payment of a special POLL-TAX. He also stipulated certain restrictions and disabilities, like exclusion from public office, the wearing of distinctive clothes, prohibition against erecting new houses of worship, etc. This caused Jews and Christians to be called Dhimmis, a 2nd class citizen. Toward the end of his reign, he had a temporary structure set up as a mosque. It was situated on the traditional site of Mt. Moriah's 2nd Temple which was covered over by the Roman Temple.
|Al Buraq Hafifa, Muhammad's Flying Horse|
So Mohammed flew on al-Buraq to the temple in Jerusalem, tied it up to a ring "the prophets" had used, and went on into the Temple to pray. Because of the fantastic nature of Mohammed's claims, some 21st century Muslims try to suggest that this was a vision or dream, but according to perhaps the most highly regarded historian of Islam:
|Pegasus, Greek myth|
" It was Caliph Abd al Malik in about 738 who built The Mosque of Omar, also called the Dome of the Rock, to replace the temporary structure set up by Caliph Omar a century earlier, making the first built in about 638, 6 years after Mohammad had died. So their claims of the unnamed farthest mosque couldn't have been in Jerusalem. Therefore it's all allegory. Besides that, the city of Jerusalem is not mentioned in the Koran, but in the Jewish Tanakh (Old Testament) it is mentioned 669 times.
The Mosque of Omar was built in the center of the Temple area. As Al- Haram al-Sharif, the Noble Sanctuary, it is the 3rd holiest site in Islam. The Dome of the Rock stands in the center. There is a protuberance of bedrock inside the shrine. Traditionally this marks the spot where Muhammad ascended to heaven on his nighttime journey from Mecca 1,400 years ago. It might also be the very spot of the Jewish Temple's HOLY OF HOLIES, Then at the southern end of the esplanade is Al-Aqsa Mosque. Muslims today insist that the whole area of Haram is Al-Aqsa including the open squares between the shrines and the olive grove north of the Dome. They say it is all sacred ground. This means that the Jewish Temple has no room up here to be built.
"Sahih al-Bukhari, Volume 5, B58, #228: Narrated Ibn 'Abbas: The sights which Allah's Apostle was shown on the Night Journey when he was taken to Bait-ul-Maqdis (i.e. Jerusalem) were actual sights, (not dreams). And the Cursed Tree (mentioned) in the Quran is the tree of Zaqqum (itself).
Additionally, the rock enshrined in the Dome of the Rock on the temple mount, is supposed to be where Mohammed launched from, for the leg of the trip to heaven. So it would be untenable to suggest that Mohammed's journey was a dream or vision, while at the same time claiming that he launched from a very much physical and tangible rock, on the temple mount.
There were many skeptics when Mohammed recounted the details of his trip the morning after his night journey on the flying animal. "
From 1948 to 1967, Jews were not allowed in the eastern part of the old city of Jerusalem to pray at the Western (Wailing) Wall as they had always done. That's because it was now in the hands of Jordan, who took it in the War of Independence illegally. " On June 7, 1967, the 3rd day of the Six-Day War, Israeli troops took East Jerusalem, bringing the Temple Mount under Jewish rule for the first time since the year 70." It was a momentous occasion after waiting 1,897 years. Moshe Dayan was the Defense Minister in the war and decided to leave the Mount, Al- Haram al-Sharif, in Muslim hands which just barely kept a holy war from breaking out. "The keys to all of the gates to the Temple Mount, save one, were left in the hands of the Waqf, the Islamic endowment that administers the site. Access to the Mount was guaranteed to non-Muslims, but no prayer was allowed there except by Muslims. These informal rules of engagement were ones that both Jewish and Muslim religious authorities could accept. Overwhelmingly, rabbinic rulings forbade Jews from ascending to the Mount, lest the sanctity of the Holy of Holies be violated. The Waqf could abide universal access to the site, provided that the exclusivity of Muslim worship was maintained.
Read more: http://forward.com/articles/118309/calming-the-temple-mount/#ixzz3MwPJf8PA." So, instead of the Mount, the Western Wall drew Jews for their holy place to pray.
The rabbis of Israel ruled that Jews should not enter the gates of the Mount. They had good reason. Under religious law, every Jew is presumed to have had contact with the dead. Jews in ancient days were able to purify themselves in order to enter the sacred square. We are not legally purified, even if we haven't touched a dead body, a human bone, been in to a grave, or even entered the same room as a dead body. We are rendered impure and must not enter the Temple or even be where our Temple once stood. Since we have not reclaimed the Mount, but have left it in Jordanian hands, there is no way even to rebuild the Temple on this site.
The only way acceptable to purify ourselves is with the ashes of a red heifer, an animal rarely born, but possible. Red heifers have been born, but the one needed for sacrifice must be very pure, and must be pure red. A few white hairs disqualifies the animal. This 3,000 year old ritual was very reasonable in its day and meant that "God will dwell among and protect His people" only if death has no dominion in the sanctuary. We haven't had any ashes from a red Heifer since the Romans razed the Temple in Jerusalem in 70. We all became impure, but it didn't matter because we then had no Temple to enter. We no longer use sacrifice of animals, either.
The time of having the 3rd Temple is to come at the time of the Messiah. We Jews are still waiting. Why is this site on Mt. Moriah so sacred and important? This is where Isaac, son of Abraham and Sarah, the 2nd of our 3 patriarchs, was almost sacrificed by his father, Abraham. Abraham was told what to do by G-d, so he took him to Mt. Moriah and was about to sacrifice him when G-d stopped him, finding he was very obedient, and that was the test. It also showed Abraham that this was the end of human sacrifice. Abraham lived in the 2nd millennium BCE. So this was sometime during that period of 2,000 BCE to 1900 BCE.
Mohammad also tells this story, only instead of Isaac, used Ishmael, Abraham's first son by Hagar, as the son to be sacrificed instead. The point I'm making is that Mohammad learned about this story from the Jews in Medina, who regularly told Bible stories to those who wanted to listen outside in the streets of Medina, and this was already a story about something that happened 1,500 years before Muhammad's time. He must have changed the son to Ishmael to be more appealing and personal to his audience. Maybe in his mind he assumed it had to be Ishmael.
"Israeli officials, including Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu, blame Palestinian Authority President Mahmoud Abbas and his colleagues for fanning the flames of violence in Jerusalem, during which 11 Jews have been killed in Palestinian terror attacks, including a 3-month-old American girl who was intentionally run over by a Palestinian driver and last week’s synagogue massacre.
The New Standard Jewish Encyclopedia
from my blog: http://jewishbubba.blogspot.com/2014/12/countries-voting-for-palestine-are.html
The End of Days -fundamentalism and the struggle for the Temple Mount by Gershom Gorenberg p. 11-13
http://www.israelnationalnews.com/News/News.aspx/187176-praying on Temple Mount