1. The first king of Israel was from the tribe of Benjamin, Saul. c1040-1010 BCE.
2. David was from the tribe of Judah. 1010 -970 BCE
3. Solomon, his son, followed from 961-920 BCE This was an inherited position. Sons followed.
Israel then divided between north and south.
The southern part renamed itself Judah since the tribe of Judah lived there along with some Benjaminites.
4. Jeroboam 933-912 BCE-21 years 4. Rehoboam 933-917 BCE -16 years
5. Nadab 912-911 BCE-1 year 5. Abijam 917-915 BCE-2 years
6. Baasha 911-888 BCE-23 years 6. Asa 915-875 BCE-40 years
7. Elah 888-887 BCE-1 year 7. Jehoshaphat 875-851 BCE-24 years
8. Zimri 887 BCE -7 days 8. Jehoram 851-844 BCE-7 years
9. Omri 887-876 BCE-1 year 9. Ahaziah 844-843 BCE-1 year
10. Ahab 876-853 BCE -23 years 10. Athaliah 843-837 BCE-6 years
11. Ahaziah 853-idolator, brother next 11. Joash 837-798 BCE-39 years
12. Jehoram 853-843 BCE -10 years 12. Amaziah 798-780 BCE-18 years
13. Jehu 843-816 BCE--27 years 13. Azariah (Uzziah) 780-740 BCE-40 years
14. Jehoahaz 816-800 BCE-16 years 14. Jotham 740-735 BCE-5 years
15. Jehoash 800-785 BCE -15 years 15. Ahaz 735-720 BCE-15 years
16. Jeroboam II 785-745 BCE-40 years 16. Hezekiah 720-692 BCE-28 years
17. Zechariah 744 BCE - 6 months 17. Manasseh 720-692 BCE-28 years
18. Shallum 743 BCE -5 months 18. Amon 638-637 BCE-1 year
19. Menahem 743-736 BCE-7 years 19. Josiah 637-608 BCE-29 years
20. Pekahiah 736-735 BCE-1 year 20. Jehoahaz 608 BCE-3 months, captive-taken to Egypt
21. Pekah 735-730 BCE-5 years 21. Jehoiakim 608-598 BCE-10 years
22. Hoshea 730-721 BCE -9 years 22. Jehoiachin 598-597 BCE-1 year
Assyrian Attack 23. Zedekiah 597-586 BCE Babylonian Attack-11 years
Judah had been taken to Babylonia by 586 BCE and were in exile. The authority of the exilarchs in Babylonia was the basis of the authority until the 14th century CE. From the 2nd century BCE, the Davidic house was thought to be the one to deliver the Messiah.
Hashmonean kings were also filling the role as high priests, too. Jewish revolutionary movements of the 1st and 2nd centuries CE produced many claimants to be the messianic kingship. There were Andreas, Lukuas, General Bar Kokhba, etc.
The Hasmoneans was the name of a priestly family and dynasty founded by Mattathias of Modiin and were called the Hashmonai (Hashmoneans). Mattathias had 5 sons; Judah the Maccabee, Jonathan, simon, John and Eleazar. The directed the popular revolt against the hellenizing policy in Israel-Judah by the Syrian king Antiochus Epiphanes.
From 166-164 BCE, the Hasmoneans fought a number of battles against the Syrians and in 164 BCE, Judah captured Jerusalem and rededicated the Temple. We celebrate this event to this day as Chanukah!
This was followed up by a series of raids to rescue the Jewish population of Ammon, Idumea, Gilead and the Galilee. They were then defeated in 163 at Bet Zechariah where Eleazar was killed. The Hasmoneans were able to get terms securing religious freedom for the Jews, but Judah and his party kept on fighting anyway and Judah fell at Elasa in 160 BCE. John was murdered afterwards and Jonathan took over the leadership. He then became the high priesthood in 152 BCE and governorship of Judah in 150 BCE. Simon was able to get exemption from tribute from the Jews in 147 BCE. He was then confirmed by the people as hereditary high priest, ethnarch and general in 142 BCE but was then murdered in 135 BCE. His son, John Hyrcanus succeeded him and was defeated horribly by Antiochus VII Sidetes, . Jerusalem was then taken by the Syrians after a prolonged siege and Judea once more became a Seleucid province.
After the defeat of Antiochus in his war against Parthia, John launched an offense against Transjordan, Samaria and Idumea which marked the transition of the Hasmoneans to a semii-hellenized secular military dynasty. This led to his repudiation of the Pharisees and his belonging to the aristocratic Sadducee party.
Aristobulus II and his sons Alexander and Antigonus Mattathias tried to regain power but failed. Hyrcanus' granddaughter, Mariamne married Herod who put her to death in 29 BCE along with other surviving Hasmoneans being Aristobulus II in 35 BCE, Hyrcanus II in 30 BCE, and Mariamane's sons Alexander and Aristobulus in 7 BCE. So ended the line of Hasmonean leadership after the fall of Judea.
Resource: The New Standard Jewish Encyclopedia