|British Empire 1921|
At the time of the 1947 partition resolution, the Arabs had a majority in western Palestine as a whole...1.2 million Arabs versus 600,000 Jews. But, the Jews were a majority in the area allotted to them by the resolution and in Jerusalem.
but Britain decided on their own to give 80% to Abdullah in 1922, because he wanted his reward for helping Britain take the Ottoman Empire in battle with his horsemen, according to the movie "Lawrence of Arabia" with Omar Sharif and Peter O'Toole, a British epic that came out in 1962. "The film depicts Lawrence's experiences in the Arabian Peninsula during World War I, in particular his attacks on Aqaba and Damascus and his involvement in the Arab National Council."
Jews deserved a reward also for what Chaim Weizmann had done for them by improving their ammunition, but only got the remaining 20% along the sea and half of that was offered to the Palestinian Arabs for a state of their own, but they refused it as they expected to get all the remaining 20%. If they accepted, then they'd be stuck with half and it would be harder to gain the other half, they figured. Chaim and other Jews had been meeting with Britain for years when WWI had started because they saw this as their chance of gaining back their ancient homeland after waiting for 2,000 years. The time was right. No one had ever held the land or had done anything with it. It was as if it was waiting for their return.
|Allenby with Emir Feisal|
The land was delicious! Jordan's geographic position is on the east bank of the Jordan River, and Britain's helpfulness was not altruistic. The oil pipelines from Kirkuk and the later Trans-Arabian Pipe Line from Saudi Arabia made Jordan strategic for oil exporting. Jordan was sitting pretty for Britain's defense of the Suez Canal and the Red Sea zone. It went along with the land they held in the mandate, so they had full control for 30 years. Though the Hashemite monarchy was heavily subsidized, it was of great interest to the British foreign office. This desert kingdom was a British client. They leaned on Great Britain. After all, Great Britain was great because it included Scotland, Wales and Ireland from their own surrounding islands as well as Australia, India, Canada, New Zealand, and other interesting places, even Cyprus.
Jordan was treated a little differently because the British after WWII were still there. The British officers continued to direct Jordanian military and paramilitary units.
The Peel Commission in 1937 figured that the only solution was to have separate Jewish
and Arab states. The Jews resented being confined to a ghetto of 5,000 out of the 26,700 square kilometers remaining in Palestine. But they decided to negotiate with the British, while the Arabs refused to consider any compromises.
The WHITE PAPER in 1939 called for an Arab state to be created anyway within 10 years. Brits didn't listen to the Arab's NO WAY. They went ahead and limited Jewish immigration to no more than 75,000 over the next 5 years. Arabs repudiated the White Paper. They rejected being given a state and the opportunity for self-determination.
5 minutes after Israel announced their tiny state had come into existence, they were attacked by all their neighbors. There was a truce with Israel winning and surviving. The United Nations did not forget that they had offered a deal of partitioning the 20% of land between the Israelis and Palestinians. They had just been turned down flat which today's Palestinians hate to admit and don't. I'm looking at the Palestinian-written textbook used in colleges in Portland, Oregon and they write that the UN ignored this fact. Jerusalem was to become an international city but that turned out badly, too.
Six weeks later, Bevin was at an interview where he approved of Transjordan's plan to frustrate the partition plan by invading and occupying the area planned to be the Arab state by the UN partition plan. The Arab leaders promised to slaughter the Jews who were untrained, poorly armed in trying to defend the small but densely populated coastal strip of land. Arabs had previously conquered half of the world 1,300 years before. . They were unstoppable, they believed.
Hussein of Jordan was receiving military and economic aid from the United States. This angered the Palestinians. It was necessary for him to keep his power, though. Then Iraq had a revolution in 1958 and this put Hussein in danger, so he asked Britain for help. His answer was that 2,000 British troops were brought in to protect Jordan against their Arab neighbors.
Before 1967, Palestinian students made up 70% of Jordan's trained personnel and professional workforce. They also made up a large majority in its colleges and universities. . After 1967, the Palestinians of Judea and Samaria began to expand their own secondary schools and 2 year colleges into universities, such as Birzeit University in 1972 where Thomas M. Ricks was from, the co-author of the textbook used in Oregon's colleges. It is located 12.5 miles North of Jerusalem and 4.5 North of Ramallah.
It was only after the Arabs lost the war of 1967 that Palestinians started crying that they needed their own state which they would call Palestine out of the "West Bank," the ancient land of Israel and Judah-the 2 Jewish states. This land was controlled by Jordan from 1948 to 1967, and Jordan never made it independent. Instead, they made the land part of the Jordanian kingdom-the land on the wrong side of the tracks, you know, the poor and oppressed part. All real power and money were kept east of the Jordan River. Life was even becoming harder for those Arabs living in Gaza under Arab rule. The Egyptian government intentionally and severely oppressed these people , using their anger that grew as a weapon against Israel. The Arabs gained political rights, industrial activity and all improved standard of living when Israel began to administer these territories, not before 1967.
Arab government covet Jerusalem. They demanded that it be restored to Arab rule before they would even discuss peace. It's a Jewish capital, always has been and will remain so as the East has been united with the West part and it has one mayor. Religiously, Jerusalem meant little to Muslims. Mecca and Medina were their holy cities. Jordan left East Jerusalem poor, unsanitary and undeveloped. From 1948 to 1967 Jordan had actually driven the Jews out of East Jerusalem which is called the Old City. They destroyed Jewish cemeteries, schools and synagogues. They prevented Jews from visiting their holy sites. Under Israeli law now, the rights of all religions have been protected. Islamic holy sites are controlled by Israeli Muslims, just as Christian holy sites are controlled by Christians.
The surprise is that the most aggressive country against Israel made peace with her, which was Egypt. They were affected by doing this as the Arab states suspended Egypt from the Arab League.
The Palestinian Arabs had hurt themselves and their descendants by fleeing from the newly created Israel in 1948 in their greed and habit of obeying their leaders, such was brainwashing a common thing for them. Earlier in the century, European powers had been dishonest with Arab leaders. Nobody kept their word in those days. The result was that a large number of people were trapped in the Middle East politics. A whole generation (25 years to a generation) had grown up with no future, no possibilities, and no hope by remaining in refugee camps.
Palestinians had also established Najah National University in 1977 and Bethlehem University in 1973. Jordan lost all their resources of markets, products and manpower with the Israeli occupation says Ricks in their Palestinian textbook. They didn't really lose what they never developed or used. They lost it when they saw Israel doing these things. On the other hand, by winning, the Israelis inherited a larger Palestinian population than they had after the 1948 war of Independence. This increased their military and political problems.
Refugees were created, about 200,000 from Judea and Samaria. Israel allowed 15,000 to return. Israel allowed the Palestinians to continue as administrators and teachers under Israeli military authority. Jordan continued to pay their salaries, which came from the Jordanian treasury. The Palestinian population caused problems for Jordan. About 1.5 million villagers, refugees in camps, and townspeople of Judea and Samaria and Gaza resisted Israeli rule in several ways. There was a teacher's strike in Ramallah/al-Bireh district to open confrontations with Israeli authorities and army. All of King Hussein's time was spent in arranging grants, loans, and military procurements from any place available.
Then came BLACK SEPTEMBER. 1970
September 1970, King Hussein had to intervene to end the PLO"s free-wheeling control of Amman and their dominance in Jordan. The king crushed the PLO leadership in Amman with assistance from Britain and the USA while Syria and Egypt said nothing. Palestinians were killed and thousands retreated to Lebanon and Syria. Jordan would not cooperate with the PLO anymore. An attempt was made in 1983 after the Beirut and Tripoli evacuations, when Yasser Arafat began to think about a possible federation of a Palestinian-Jordanian state.
|King Hussein (right) and Egyptian President Gamal Abdel Nasser at the1964 Arab League Summit in Alexandria, Egypt|
Resource: Textbook: Middle East Past & Present by Yahya Armaajani and Thomas M.Ricks
A Young Person's History of Israel, 2nd Edition by David Bamberger p. 131-132
Battleground, fact and fantasy in Palestine by Samuel Katz. p 169-171.
Myths and Facts, a concise record of the Arab-Israeli conflict by Mitchell G. Bard and Joel Himelfarb, p 32-34..