Tuesday, June 24, 2014

Time Travel Back Each 100 Years: Crimes Against Jews : Why We Fight to Have Israel

Nadene Goldfoot                                                                   

What has 2014 brought to the Jewish people?

Israel is now 66 years old.  It has survived.   Its first 25 years knew no real peace. That took us to 1973.   From its first day of birth it has had to fight to survive having been confronted with THE WAR OF INDEPENDENCE 1947-49; THE SINAI WAR 1956; SIX DAY WAR 1967; THE WAR OF ATTRITION 1966-67; YOM KIPPUR WAR 1973, LEBANON 1981-82, GAZA ATTACKS 2005-2014.

1. The creation of the state of Palestine by the Arabs making this the 49th Muslim majority state in the world, in answer to having a 2-state solution.  Supposedly this is in answer to the Palestinian need for a state and is to bring peace and security to all, but it is just the opposite for the Jews.  It took land away from the Jewish Homeland and gave it to their obvious enemy.  If it is to bring peace, it might be worth it.  However, peace is yet to be seen.  Rockets still fall from Gaza and already 3 children have been kidnapped.
2. Using part of the Promised Land (Judea and Samaria)  promised to the Jews in the creation of Palestine.
3. No Jews are to live in "Palestine."  It is practicing Apartheid against Jews.  Thousands of Jews already live in Judea and Samaria.
4. Palestine is created by two terrorist groups who will not change their charter.  In fact, they have unified with each other.
5.  Their charter goal is to destroy Israel.
6.  A Caliphate has been created by Sunni terrorists ISIS aka ISIL from Syria through Iraq slaughtering everyone not Sunni and not connected to the Iraq government of majority Shi'as.  Their next goal has been said to take Jerusalem.  The USA is also threatened.
7. Missiles lined up aimed at Israel from Syria and Lebanon.
8. 2014-Antisemitic Ku Klux Klan leader Frazier Glenn Cross, also known as Frazier Glenn Miller, kills three non-Jewish people at a Jewish community center and a Jewish retirement in home in Overland Park, Kansas, USA, the day before the start of Passover.

What Was 1914  Like?

1. Jews in Soviet Union denied the right of national identity.  Affected by May Laws (May 3, 1882) They were revoked in 1915. but only legally in March 1917 after the Russian Revolution.  The laws kept Jews in Pale of Settlement.  750,000 Jews that were living in Russia in 1882 to 1890 were forced to re-settle in the Pale, expelled from Moscow and St. Petersburg, Anti-Jewish pogroms in towns of Russia.   They caused people to be expulsed, intolerable overcrowding, blocked economic opportunities.  All this caused Jews to emigrate to USA in 1900's.    "After 1881, however, when the assassination of Tsar Alexander II was rumored to have been part of a Jewish plot, anti-semitism became state policy in Russia. The largest Jewish community of its time was subjected to violence (in the form of pogroms, murderous attacks on the Jewish population) and restrictive legislation (known as the May Laws) which made survival precarious."
2.  WWI started in July 1914- ended in 1917.  Started with assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his wife Sophie van Hohenburg at Sarajevo and the disintigration of  the Austro-Hungarian empire.  It grew.  " The Cossacks were killing, pillaging, and raping. Jews and peasants, gripped by panic, began to flee westwards. The wealthier Jews left for Vienna, taking only a few possessions with them."
"The total number of military and civilian casualties in World War I was over 37 million. There were over 16 million deaths and 20 million wounded ranking it among the deadliest conflicts in human history. The total number of deaths includes about 10 millionmilitary personnel and about 7 million civilians"

3. Plea from Jews of WWI:  We appeal to all Jews not to rest and to come forward in demonstrations and appeals to bring the above mentioned demands into existence. We have suffered enough as a dispossessed nation in prisons and ghettos and have been victimized by pogroms. Now we want to be rulers in our own home. We are being denied national rights. It is up to you work towards establishing these rights and we want all to devote all their energy towards this good cause. We call you to join in the battle for self determination of the Jewish Nation. ( from Jews of Bukowina) 

What Was 1814 Like?

1. First Reform Judaism service in Germany 1810, continuing, growing. 
2.  Jews living in Gaza moved to Hebron in 1811.  Chased out of there in 1929.   
3. Civil Rights were given to Jews in Franfurt, Germany  in 1811.  
4. Napoleon in France  starting in 1812 was giving rights in Russia to Jews. 
5. Moses Hess in 1812 " based German anti-Semitism on race and nationhood and advised Jews to accept the fact and revive their own state in Eretz Israel."  Hess was a socialist and gave up on the idea that a progressive society would eradicate anti-Semitism.  
6.  Prussian Jews given rights in 1812, had to adopt family surnames.  
7. War of 1812 between America and Britain.  In 1814, 30 Jews held in garrison at Fort McHenry.  Captain Mordecai Meyers, Jewish, saved 200 men and supplies from sinking boats.  Star Spangled Banner written about the battle.  .  
8. 1815-Pope Pius VII reestablishes the ghetto in Rome after the defeat of Napoleon.
9. 1819-A series of anti-Jewish riots in Germany that spread to several neighboring countries: DenmarkLatvia and Bohemiaknown as Hep-Hep riots, from the derogatory rallying cry against the Jews in Germany.
10.  Jews in Persia suffering anti-Semitism, by 1838 whole community in Meshed, Persia, forcibly converted to Islam.  
11. 1840-Blood libel in Damascus, Syria against Jews in Jewish Quarter.  The Damascus affair: false accusations cause arrests and atrocities, culminating in the seizure of sixty-three Jewish children and attacks on Jewish communities throughout the Middle East

What Was 1714 Like?

1. 1678- forced mass conversions in Yemen.
2. 1712-Blood libel in Sandomierz and expulsion of the town's Jews.
3.  Life was bad in Russia.  Jews were expelled in 1727 and again in 1747.  1727 edict of Catherine I of Russia: "The Jews... who are found in Ukraine and in other Russian provinces are to be expelled at once beyond the frontiers of Russia."
4. Jews surviving from Poland's massacre of only 58 years before  in 1648-56 knew that 100,000 Jews had been murdered in the Chmielnicki massacres then.  Lived in fear of reprisals again most likely. Probably resettled elsewhere if possible.   
5. In Germany,  the Consecration of the first synagogue took place on Heidereutergasse in Berlin.  

What Was 1614 Like?

1. Aug 22nd - Trades people under Vincent Fettmilch chase & plunder Jews out of ghetto in Frankfurt
2. Sep 1st - Vincent Fettmich expels Jews from Frankfurt-on-Main, Germany
3. Vincent Fettmilch, who called himself the "new Haman of the Jews", leads a raid on Frankfurt synagogue that turned into an attack which destroyed the whole community.
4. Remembering 1603 act of Frei Diogo da Assumpcão, a partly Jewish friar who embraced Judaism, burned alive in Lisbon, Portugal.  He no doubt was a Marrano (anusim) a hidden Jew from ancestors in 1492 who were threatened,  to come out and let people know finally that he was Jewish.  .
5. By 1615-King Louis XIII of France decrees that all Jews must leave the country within one month on pain of death.

What Was 1514 Like?

1.180,000 Jews expulsed from Spain in 1492 and 50,000 converted to Christianity allowed them to remain in Spain.   Jews had mainly settled on the Iberian Peninsula (Spain).  "Portugal, literally the closest refuge, issued a similar decree in 1497 under Spanish pressure but initially did not enforce it very strictly. The majority of Sephardic Jews fled to North Africa. Most settled around the Mediterranean from Morocco in the west to the coast of Asia MinorGreeceBosnia and Bulgaria in the East during a migration process that lasted several generations. Sephardic Jews founded numerous prospering communities. In the Mediterranean region, Sephardic merchants assumed a lucrative intermediary role in the South Asian spice and cloth trades between Muslim- and Christian-ruled territories. In some towns such as Salonica (Thessaloniki), they represented a significant part of the population.  By 1514 Jews were settling in new territory after being expelled from Spain and Portugal.  Some even went to live in Syria.  The Ottoman Empire had many Jews. 
2. In 1502 all Jews of Rhodes were forcibly converted to Christianity, expelled or taken into slavery so were dealing with what had happened to them by this date.  Jews expelled from Sicily and Sardinia in 1497 settling in new places.  Jews expelled from Lithuania in 1495 in Eastern Europe.  

What Was 1414 Like?

1. Hungarian Jews had been expelled in 1349 to 1360, finding new homes.  
2. 1411-Oppressive legislation against Jews in Spain as an outcome of the preaching of the Dominican friar Vicente Ferrer.
2. 1413Disputation of Tortosa, Spain, staged by the Avignon Pope Benedict XIII, is followed by forced mass conversions.
3. Jews in Toulouse, France, ill treated; will be expelled in 1420
4. Jews in Austria ill treated, will be expelled in 1421.  

What Was 1314 Like?

1. Jews were expulsed from England in 1290, seeking homes.
2. Jews in France were expulsed in 1306, seeking new homes.  Philip IV of France seizes all Jewish property (except the clothes they wear) and expels them from France (approx. 100,000). His successor Louis X of France allows French Jews to return in 1315.
3. 1320Shepherds' Crusade attacks the Jews of 120 localities in southwest France.
4. Jews in Toledo Spain having hard time being accepted; 12,000 will be massacred by the mob in 1355.  
5. 1321-King Henry II of Castile forces Jews to wear Yellow badge.
6.1321Jews in central France accused of ordering lepers to poison wells. After massacre of est. 5,000 Jews, King Philip Vadmits they were innocent.

What Was 1214 Like?

1. 1190-Saladdin takes over Jerusalem from Crusaders and lifts the ban for Jews to live there.
2. 1198Philip Augustus readmits Jews to Paris, only after another ransom was paid and a taxation scheme was set up to procure funds for himself. In August,  Saladdin's nephew al Malik, caliph of Yemen, summons all the Jews and forcibly converts them.
3.  1209-Raymond VICount of Toulouse, humiliated and forced to swear that he would implement social restrictions against Jews.
4. 1215-The Fourth Lateran Council headed by Pope Innocent III declares: "Jews and Saracens of both sexes in every Christian province and at all times shall be marked off in the eyes of the public from other peoples through the character of their dress." The Fourth Lateran Council also noted that the Jews' own law required the wearing of identifying symbols. Pope Innocent III also reiterated papal injunctions against forcible conversions, and added: "No Christian shall do the Jews any personal injury...or deprive them of their possessions...or disturb them during the celebration of their festivals...or extort money from them by threatening to exhume their dead.
5. 1222-Coming in 8 years was : Council of OxfordArchbishop of Canterbury Stephen Langton forbids Jews from building new synagogues, owning slaves or mixing with Christians.
6 1223-Louis VIII of France prohibits his officials from recording debts owed to Jews, reversing his father's policy of seeking such debts.

What Was 1114 Like?

1.  The German Crusaders massacred Jews in European towns on the way to Jerusalem in 1096.
2.  The Jewish community in Jerusalem was massacred by the Crusaders in 1099.  
3. The Jewish population was being exterminated.  
4. 1107-Moroccan Almoravid ruler Yusuf ibn Tashfin ordered all Moroccan Jews to convert or leave.

What Was 614- 914 Like?

1. Jews in the Byzantine Empire were forcibly converted to Christianity when found.  
2. 610–620 Visigothic Hispania After many of his anti-Jewish edicts were ignored, king Sisebur prohibits Judaism. Those not baptized fled. This was the first incidence where a prohibition of Judaism affected an entire country.
3. 614-Fifth Council of Paris decrees that all Jews holding military or civil positions must accept baptism, together with their families.
4. 629-Byzantine Emperor Heraclius with his army marches into Jerusalem. Jewish inhabitants support him after his promise of amnesty. Upon his entry into Jerusalem the local priests convince him that killing Jews is a good deed. Hundreds of Jews are massacred, thousands flee to Egypt.
                                                             What Was 114 Like?

1. Jews on Cyprus were expulsed in 115.  
2. In 115 Thousands of Jews are killed during civil unrest in Egypt, Cyprus, and Cyrenaica
3. Tacitus writes anti-Jewish polemic in his Histories
4. A time of trying to wipe out Judaism. 
5. In 119, Roman emperor Hadrian bans circumcision, making Judaism de facto illegal.
6. Various Greek and Roman writers, such as Mnaseas of Patras, Apollonius MolonApion and Plutarch, repeat the legend that Jews worship a pig, a golden calf, a head, etc. Josephus collects and denies the rumours

What Was 70 Like? 
1. Jerusalem fell to the Romans. Temple destroyed by fire.   Jews were taken as slaves or had been killed, fled.  

586 BCE:  Babylon destroyed the temple in Jerusalem, and captured Judea and 10,000 Jewish families.

References : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1914
Facts About Israel, Division of Information, ministry for foreign affairs, Jerusalem
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timeline_of_antisemitism, Excellent

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