Friday, March 7, 2014

What Caused Russian Jews to Immigrate Out of Russia By 1920's ?

Nadene Goldfoot                                                            

    Catherine II of Russia-took over her husband's position in 1762 at age 33

1495-advent of 1492 Spanish Inquisition brought on Jews' expulsion from Lithuania.  

1648-56  100,000 Jews were murdered in the Chmielnicki massacres in Poland.  

1727 and 1747 saw Jews expelled from Russia.  

Catherine II of Russia, actually of Prussian descent, started ruling in 1762, and decreed in 1791  to confine Jews in THE PALE OF SETTLEMENT;  states of Poland, Lithuania, Latvia, Ukraine and Crimea and Belarus.  They were not allowed to live in Russia proper.

1804 Alexander I ruled with statute concerning Organization of the Jews.

1871-1921 were years that Jews were facing anti-Jewish pogroms in the towns of Russia.  Nathan Abraham Goldfus was born in Telsiai, Lithuania on January 1, 1871.  Left for England at age 21 in 1893. Went through Dublin, Ireland and finally  arrived in Council, Idaho in 1905.  Other Goldfus families went to South Africa from Ireland.  

1880-1920's Big immigration of Jews out of Russia-125,000 to 200,000 to USA.  

1881:  Alexander II more lenient towards Jews, was murdered and Jews were blamed.  

By May 3, 1882, MAY LAWS WERE ENACTED.   The Russian government legislated that Jews were barred from living or acquiring property except in towns in the Pale of Settlement. This was a continuation of the past 91 years of Catherine's decree of discrimination of Jews and where they could live.  All 750,000 Jews living in Russia were now forced to re-settle in the Pale.

1882, 1st Aliyah to Palestine from Russian JewsOptions

The resettling took until 1890 for so many people.
1891 and the last Jews were expelled from Moscow and St. Petersburg.  Nicholas II was ruler.

They continued with  local expulsions and showed up in intolerable overcrowded conditions and the blocking of economic opportunities were largely responsible for an almost wholesale Jewish emigration from Russia during the period they were in force.

They were not revoked in effect until 1915 due to WWI.  They were not make legal until March 1917, after the Russian Revolution.

1917 to present day:  Jews in the Soviet Union were denied the right of national identity and the right to worship their religion.  Sharansky was one of the Jews who studied Hebrew secretly with the help of my teacher in Haifa, Israel, Sarah, who wrote to him and taught him that way while he was in prison.  Of course it was all in secret.

Officials carrying out these laws were semi-literate and had no understanding of "law".  Errors have been found in their carrying out such laws.  Gdaliya Zeigermacher was expelled from the village of Puzheikovo, although it was proved that he had lived there for sixteen years. One Bondarchick was improperly registered as residing in the village of Baksha, and was therefore expelled from the village of Kapustyanka, where he had lived for twenty years. The misspelling of names, a very frequent occurrence, led to annoyance and expulsion; e.g., "Gruzman" was entered as "Ruzman"; "Garvich" as "Gurovich"; and "Shmerka Dorfman" as "Shlyoma." A slight error made by a petty official, not to speak of various evil motives, sufficed to bring about the expulsion of the unfortunate Jew from his home and to bring terror and despair upon him. Incompetency messed up the lives of the Jews as much as the discriminating order.  

Resource:  The New Standard Jewish Encyclopedia  Pale of Settlement list of countries involved

No comments:

Post a Comment