Wednesday, June 28, 2017

Us Homo-Sapiens, All So Similar Yet Sharing Differences: Understanding Our DNA

Nadene Goldfoot                                              
This is a double helix.  DNA is in this shape.  The glue that holds
these 2 together are pairs of nucleotides or base pairs.  A, G, C, and T.
G pairs with C.    A pairs with T.
Coming from Adam and Eve, we might be all humans, but oh so different while being the same.
The garden of Eden must have been in Africa back millions of years ago as scientists find that's where we all came from.  " People have been created with 23 matched pairs (46 total) of chromosomes."                                                                        
Homo sapien of Pleistocene to Present era
This is from the Ice Age 2,588,000 to 11,700 years ago
European male
Neanderthal died out 30,000 years ago.
The factory producing us had a pre-homo-sapien model called Neanderthal.  Some of us still bear a few of their genes. We have 23 chromosome pairs where our genes lie.  There are 20,000 to 25,000 genes in human DNA.  These genes are made of chemical  base pairs.  Our human genome is estimated at 30,000.  Almost all (99,9%)  of our nucleotide bases are exactly the same in all people;  and 97% are the same as the chimpanzee's.  I for one carry 2.9% of my genes from Neanderthal forebears.  Some of the genes have been found to have particular functions such as causing diseases and other problems in our body, but as of 2005, the functions are unknown for over 50% of identified genes.

Chromosome #1 has the most known genes of 2,968, and the 23rd chromosome called the X or Y has the fewest of only 231.  It is the sex gene of a child. A female inherits an X-chomosome from each parent which gives her a matching pair.  A male inherits an X from his mother and a Y from his father.  That makes the baby a male.  #23 doesn't get a matched set.  This means that if you have had an autosomal dna test such as familyfinder at Family Tree DNA or 23&Me or and find you are a female who has an X match with some man, it means the common ancestor you both match is a female.  If you don't have an X match, it's with a man.  FTNDA also has a male or female icon now with the matching surname to show the sex of what side of the family is involved, your mother or your father's side.  I match a lady through my father's side of the family and we have an X match.

There are 2 types of DNA; Mitochondrial (mtDNA) and nuclear DNA (Ydna).  One haplogroup or branch  of mtDNA is called W or Wilma.                                                                            
Zlata Jermulowski/ske b: 1870 in Lazdijai, Suwalki, Lithuania.  
 I have a 3rd cousin I have found through DNA testing and our common ancestor would be from  a female, through my grandmother, Zlata Jermulowske side of the family-of the W haplogroup. I know this because we share a segment on the 23rd gene called X.   She was from Lazdijai, Suwalki, Lithuania that had been taken over by Poland.  She stubbornly said she was a "Litvak!" 
 "Haplogroup W is derived from the N superhaplogroup, which dates to approximately 65,000 years ago.  The origin of haplogroup W dates to approximately 25,000 years ago,"  Abraham was born in the 2nd millennium BCE or we can say about 2,000 BCE.  I've picked 1948 BCE as his birthdate.  That is  only 3,965 years ago.  A generation is considered to be 25 years.  If we go back 10 generations , we have accumulated 1,024 ancestral grandparents; 512 females and 512 males.  That would take us to the year 1766.  We've already been exposed to a lot of our ancestor's genes.  It's amazing that  genes are handed down to us in chunks that have stuck together quite well, losing a few here and there as passed down or not losing a thing.  The length of the chunk is measured in cMs.  This is an example of my match with a 3rd cousin.  Notice that we share 2 segments on chromosome #2 and #7, some pretty nice chunks.  Wish I knew just what 2 and 7 do for us.  
ChrStart LocationEnd LocationCentimorgans (cM)SNPs
Largest segment = 29.7 cM
Total of segments > 7 cM = 116.7 cM
7 matching segments
Estimated number of generations to MRCA = 3.5 : meaning between 75 to 100 years to our common ancestor, and I have found that person on my tree along with some factual information.  

 Paternal aunt, Aunt Elsie carrying W haplogroup.
If her son tests, he will carry it but not pass it onto his daughters. They will
get their mtDNA from their mother.  

Wilma and Fred Flintstone
      W was discovered later.  Haplogroup W is believed to have originated around 23,900 years ago in Western Asia. It is descended from the haplogroup N2. That's why it wasn't discovered with the other 7.  It was a branch, and was named "Wilma".  These 7 women found by Sykes lived in Europe within the last 50,000 years.  They were called the CLAN mothers of us women.  They descended from a common ancestor, Eve, who  lived in Africa about 100,000 to 200,000 years ago.  

    Mitochondrial DNA are cells also found in animals, plants and fungi.  The mother passes her mt onto her children and just females can pass it to the next generation.  It is the branch on the tree of life that tells where each female has started out from; where her factory was located.  A cell in our body has hundreds to thousands of mitochondria and each one carries between 5 and 10 copies of its own DNA.   Mitochondrial DNA is passed from mother to child virtually unchanged .  My tag the scientists have created for my mtDNA branch is H2a1.  My mother's mother was born in Sweden to Swedish parents.  This tag of H is carried by almost half of Europeans.  My paternal grandmother came from Lithuania and was Jewish.  Her mtDNA is W.

The mtDNA is found outside the cell nucleus in small organelles called mitochondria.  You don't inherit it from your father; only your mother.

It is believed that 500 to 700 million years ago, mitochondria were just independent bacteria that colonized the precursors of the complex cells found in today's animals and plants, forming the symbiotic relationship we see today.  A mitochondrion acts as the power plant of a cell, taking nutrients from the cell for the production of ATP (adenosine triphosphate) energy.  
My Swedish Aunt Dorothy Olson who carried H2a1,
died of an appendicitis attack at age 5 in Iowa. She would have been
my mother's half sister by Grandma's 1st husband.  
Brian Sykes came up with the fact that there were only 7 different branches of mtDNA in humans, and then about 3 more have been found since his book was published in 2001.  H was named "Helena" and her origins happened 20,000 years ago during the worst of the last ice age.Scandinavia was covered by glaciers and permanent ice fields as far south as Berlin and Warsaw then.  In those days, Britain was still joined to continental Europe.                                                                    
 About 40% of Ashkenazi Jewish people of today are said to come from 4 different mothers.
"Those women apparently lived somewhere in Europe within the last 2,000 years, but not necessarily in the same place or even the same century, said lead author Dr. Doron Behar of the Rambam Medical Center in Haifa, Israel.  It's figured that there are about 8 million Ashkenazi Jews today.  They can be "traced back to Jews who migrated from Israel to Italy in the first and second centuries."   Our ancestors lived  in "Eastern Europe in the 12th and 13th centuries and expanded greatly, reaching about 10 million just before World War II, he said."
Through autosomal DNA testing in such tests as familyfinder from FTDNA, we can find DNA matches of 2nd cousins to 5th cousins and more distant.  We just need to make a great family tree for ourselves and with luck, might find a few common ancestors.  Research for everyone can be done on such companies as  For Jewish genealogy, try                                                                            
 W (Wilma) is a small group that appears in the western Ural Mountains, the natural border between Europe and Asia and the eastern Baltic area, and is also found in India. 

Nathan Abraham Goldfoot (fus) b: August 5, 1871 Telsiai, Lithuania
carrying and passing on his Q1b1a or QBZ67  Y haplogroup-a male-only line. 
Here is great grandfather Abiathar Smith Robinson b: 1829 with grandfather Frank Hugh Robinson b: June 21, 1870.  They both carry R1b1a2a1a1b4/now shortened to R-L21.
They're finding out that their origins were Irish, not English or Welsh as thought. 

This Robinson line is not Jewish, though there are Robinsons that are.  

Nuclear DNA  (yDNA) is found in the cell nucleus.  This is used by genealogists for surname studies  mtDNA is found outside the cell nucleus.  Both are necessary for long term population studies and to tell if one has Native American or African ancestry.  There are about 20 different branches of yDNA compared to about 10 of mtDNA.  
Certain ones are found in Jews as they are found consistently in Jewish men. J is called the Cohen gene, coming from Aaron, brother of Moses who inherited the position of priest for the Israelites.   It is also found in many Arab men as well, with a few differences to show each branch.  A large group-J1c3d is now called J-L147, a new form of shorthand.  E haplogroup is the next most widely found in Jewish men.  
There are 3 billion base pairs of DNA in the nucleus of human cells grouped in 23 chromosome pairs; one from your father and one from your mother.  About 97% of nuclear DNA was called "Junk DNA in 2001."  Today some of it has been found to have a purpose.  "For example, it has been discovered that some of the formally "useless" DNA actually controls embryos."  

75% of Jews are lactose intolerant.  That's a new fact to me.  

Resource: DNA & Genealogy; Colleen Fitzpatrick & Andrew Yeiser
The Seven Daughters of Eve, by Bryan Sykes
What Haplogroup We Be? Nadene Goldfoot, Jewish haplotypes
FTDNA Revealing purpose in Junk DNA

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