Saturday, December 3, 2016

Timeline of Jews, Israel from Abraham to Today

Nadene Goldfoot; Update 12/5/16                                           
                                                  Judaean Desert

1948 BCE Abraham born, This is in the 2nd Millennium , son of Terah, Left Ur, (Iraq) of the Chaldees               and lived among the Canaanite and Philistine people.  Visited Egypt, lived in Hebron.
1391-1271 BCE / 1445 BCE from 70 sons, grandsons of Jacob to 611,30 Jews with Moses /possibly 1225 BCE with reign of Pharaoh Merneptah (Egypt history).
11th Century BCE 1100s to 1010 BCE :King Saul, son of Kish from tribe of Benjamin
  1010 BCE-970 BCE  King David  of Israel , 
          Census of David: c 5,000,000 population
961 BCE to 920 BCE  King Solomon 
933-912 King Jeroboam of Israel
933-917 King Rehoboam of Judah
917-915 King Abijam of Judah
915-875 King Asa of Judah
912-911 King Nadab of Israel
911-988 King Baasha of Israel
888-887 King Elah of Israel
875-851 King Jehoshaphat of Judah
887-876 King Omri of Israel
876-853 King Ahab of Israel
853 King Ahaziah/Uzziah of Israel
853 -843 King Jehoram of Israel
851-844 King Jehoram of Judah
844-843 King Ahaziah of Judah
843-816 King Jehu of Israel
843-837 King Athaliah of Judah
837-798 King Joash of Judah
816-800 King Jehoshaz of Israel
800-785 King Jehoash of Israel
798-780 King Amaziah of Judah
785-745 King Jeroboam II of Israel
780-740 King Azariah/Uzziah of Judah
744  King Zechariah of Israel last king of house of Jehu, assassinated by Shallum
743 King Shallum of Israel
743-736 King Menahem of Israel
740-735 King Jotham of Judah
736-735 King Pekahiah of Israel
735-730 King Pekah of Israel
735-720 King Ahaz of Judah
730-721 King Hoshea of Israel
722 BCE to 721 BCE Assyrian attack on Israel, taking captives of 10 northern tribes (Lost Tribes of Israel)
720-692 King Hezekiah and King Manasseh of Judah
638-637 King Amon of Judah
637-608 King Josiah of Judah
608 King Jehoahaz of Judah
608-598 King Jehoiakim of Judah  561 BCE was released from prison, royal honors 
598-597 King Jehoiachin of Judah
597-586 BCE Babylonian Invasion , Nebuchadnezzar taking captives, Solomon's Temple destroyed 
597-586 King Zedekiah (Mattaniah) of Judah, appointed by Nebuchadnezzar, d. in Babylon, Nebuchadnezzar took Jews to Babylon, conquered Judah, 
1st Half of 6th Century BCE
550 BCE-330 BCE: King " Sirus "started sending 'Bani Israel' to their homeland Jerusalem in 550 B.C. 42,360 Israelis came back to Jerusalem. Remaining were living in Iran till 330 B.C. It is to be noted that at that time Iran had 22 provinces. Kabul, Zabul, Ghaur, Kharasan, etc. were its distinct provinces. .The Jews went back to to Jerusalem after Cyrus gave them permission.  Only about 50 000,as stated earlier.The rest moved East towards Iran and Afghanistan
When these people settled into Afghanistan, Kabul, Ghazni, Ghoristan etc. their language was changed to Pashtu, language used today by Pakistani Pashtos.  (Rooman Khan) Remaining as 10  Lost Tribes of Israel

538 BCE Return of Most of Jews from Babylon, 42,360 returnees
515 BCE Dedication of 2nd Temple
510 BCE Zechariah of 1st half of 6th century BCE: Prophet, priest of time of return from Babylonian Exile, foretold of ingathering of exiles, liberation and expansion of Jerusalem: prophecy in Zechariah 12-14 about Jerusalem

444 BCE Nehemiah became Governor of Judah, request from him to king of Persia ; repaired walls there in 52 days. 
433-432 Nehemiah  and Ezra, steps to end mixed marriages  
170-167 BCE Mattathias, Hasmonean leader
167-160  BCE Revolt of Maccabees (Judas Maccabee against Antiochus the Greek
165-164 BCE Rededication of Temple by Judas Maccabee (Hanukkah) 
 163 B.C.E. there is evidence of Jews in Rome.  They were probably slaves, Traders?  
153-143 BCE Jonathan Maccabee-1st to be High Priest
142-141 BCE Simon the Hashmonean  Maccabee
141-135 BCE Simon the Hashmonean Ethnarch/High Priest
134-104 BCE John Hyrcanus I, son of Simon ruled Judah, had seized power from Ptolemy
140-116 BCE Jewish Hashmonean Dynasty took over from Seleucids, 

Kohen Gadol, laterBasileus
 • 140–135 BCESimon Maccabeus
 • 134 (110)–104 BCEJohn Hyrcanus
 • 104–103 BCEAristobulus I
 • 103–76 BCEAlexander Jannaeus
 • 76–67 BCESalome Alexandra
 • 67–66 BCEHyrcanus II
 • 66–63 BCEAristobulus II
 • 63–40 BCEHyrcanus II
 • 40–37 BCEAntigonus
110 BCE Israel-Judea under Hashmoneans fully independent, "expanded into the neighbouring regions of Samaria,GalileeItureaPerea, and Idumea, and took the title "basileus"  139 BCE Jewish community in Rome, expulsed.  Jewish slaves later lived here. 
104-103 BCE Aristobulus I, High Priest and possibly 1st king of Judea, eldest son of John Hyrcanus.
103-76 BCE Alexander Jannaeus,  king and high priest of Judea son of John Hyrcanus, despotic, violent used foreign mercenaries
76-67 BCE Salome Alexandra, ruler of Judea succeeded her husband, Alexander Yannai, gave control to Pharisees, responsible for army and foreign policy.   
73 BCE-4 BCE Herod I, the Great, king of Judea appointed by Rome.  When he died, there were uprisings by the people so Roman General Publius Quinctilius Varus crucified 2,000 Jews to quell the uprisings.   
67-66 BCE Hyrcanus II, High Priest from 76 BCE , son of Salome A. 
66-63 BCE Aristobulus II King of Judea, younger son of Alexander Yannai and Salome A. 
63 BCE Israel-Judea fully taken over by Roman Republic, broken up into a Roman client state. Pompey intervenes in Hasmonean civil war
63-40 BCE Hyrcanus II, restored only as High Priest, from 47 BCE, also was Ethnarch of Judaea. 
40 BCE  Parthian invasion
40-37 BCE Antigonus (Mattathias), last Hasmonean king, son of Aristobulus II, taken as hostage by Pompey to Rome, recaptured Jerusalem in 40, put to death  Herod's brother, Phasael, mutilated his own uncle Hyrcanus.  Ruled as king and high priest of Judea.  Herod attacked him, Antigonus fortified himself in Jerusalem, captured after 5 month seige, put to death. 
37 BCE Herod overthrows the Hasmoneans
36 BCE Aristobulus III, high Priest of Judea. 

30 BCE  Herod the Great
by Julius Caesar, crucifixions; 25,000 Jews till 70 CE.  37 BCE "
 King Herod the Great tried to bolster the legitimacy of his reign by marrying a Hasmonean princess, Mariamne, and planning to drown the last male Hasmonean heir at his Jericho palace.
10 BCE-44 CE, Agrippat, King of Judea, son of Aristabulus, grandson of Herod.
 5 BCE, in Bethlehem, Judea, Roman soldiers stationed in Jerusalem from Greece, Gaul and Syria were following Roman appointed King  Herod's orders to kill all male children under age 2.                                

 1 CE 1st century Abba Sikra zealot in Jerusalem during the revolt against the Romans, alias Ben Batiah.  nephew of R Johanan ben Zakkai, helped to escape from Jerusalem.  
6 CE "Rome joined Judea proper, Samaria and Idumea (biblical Edom) into the Roman province of Iudaea.
 6 CE.there were Jews at Vienne, France and Gallia Celtica which would be today's " SwitzerlandFranceLuxembourg and the west bank of the Rhine in Germany.".   "The first settlements of Jews in Europe are obscure;  in the year 39 at Lugdunum (i.e. Lyon) which is Lyon, France started in the year 43.  
19 CE Jews again expulsed from Rome. 
29 CE Jesus was crucified during Pontius Pilate's rule; starting the narration of Christianity., About 25,000 Jews crucified by Herod till 70 CE. 
44 CE "  Rome installed the rule of a Roman procurator side by side with the rule of the Herodian kings (specifically Agrippa I 41–44 and Agrippa II 50–100).    
49-50 CE Jews again expulsed from Rome. 
60 CE-Nero ruling: 700,000 Jews in Judea, 1,500,000 Jews scattered in other places.  , 4,200,00 Jews in the world, most likely less.  
61-63 CE  Jeshua Ben Damna, high priest, appointed by Herod Agrippa II, displaced by Gamla and ensued a struggle, toward end of the siege of Jerusalem of 70 CE fled to the Romans with other members of the priestly families.
c.65 CE  In town of Pekiin, Rabbi Simeon ben Yohai and son Eleazar hid from Romans in a cave for 13 years.
70 CE 1st Academy (university to educate rabbis) founded set up by Johanan ben Zakkai at Jabneh in Judah, south of Jaffa, reestablished the Great Sanhedrin in Jabneh until 132 of Bar Kokhba's Revolt.  
70 CE families of 24 Cohenim moved to outside of Jerusalem, each family to a different town, where their descendants lived until 1948. One place was near Kiryat Ata, now Shfar Am, an Arab town.  It has an ancient synagogue.  Survivor interviewed by Sandi Zigelman. 
  Arch of General Titus, soon to become emperor,  Menorah Relief; Romans taking away Menorah, other things from Jerusalem, taking 97,000 slaves from Judaea in 70 CE

66-73 CE Judaea which was then  a Roman Province had the first Jewish-Roman War.  
The Sadducees and Pharisees fought against the Roman Empire.  
 In the early stage the Roman guard had 3,000 against 10,000 under Ananus and 15,000 under Bar Giora.  The Romans Syrian Legion had 30,000 in Beth Horon while there were only 500 Adiabene warriors fighting for Judaea.  Eleazar had 20,000 Idumeans fighting.  6,000 were under John and 2,400 were under Eleazar, who were the radical factions.  Then the Romans brought out 5 Legions of 60,000 to 80,000 men at the Jerusalem siege.  Judaea had about 200 Sicarii fighting. 
 20,000 Roman soldiers were killed while 25,000 to 30,000 Judean rebels were killed and 10,000 radical factions.
  In the end, 1.1 million Jewish militant and civilians were killed and 97,000 were enslaved and most likely taken to Rome. 

70 CE  Destruction of 2nd Temple in Jerusalem by Romans who took city, burned it down, took Jews as slaves for Rome, some fled, others remained in Judah.
"As the siege of the capital, Jerusalem,  in the year 70 began on the day of the Passover sacrifice (V, 13, 7, VI, 9, 3), to which naturally many thousands of pilgrims had arrived from all parts of the country, the number of the besieged was very great. Among them were many from beyond the Euphrates and other foreign lands (Dio Cassius, 66. 4). 1,100,000 men perished during the siege, 97,000 were taken captive (VI, 9, 3)of these only 40,000 were preserved (8, 2), all citizens of Jerusalem (8, 2), the rest were sold for slaves, some sent into the mines in Egypt (9, 2), others distributed among the provinces for the circuses."and where did the 40,000 settle after having been allowed to go where they liked ?
71 CE Jewish zealots started Jewish revolt in Egypt after Jerusalem burning

72 CE 12,000 Jews taken as slaves from Judah to Rome to build the Colosseum under Vespasian.  
          Some Jews starting move to France

Masada in 73 CE Herod's Palace, where 960 Jewish Sicarii (Jewish zealots armed with small daggers) had been living in refuge, committed suicide after 3 months of being sieged by Roman Legion led by Lucius Flavius Silva with 15,000 troops.  1 woman, 5 children escaped.  Story told by Josephus.
1st Century CE:  Abba Sikra/Sakkara; Zealot leader in Jerusalem, nephew of Rabbi Johanan ben Zakkai, helped him escape Jerusalem

115 CE Jews were expulsed from Cyprus, Another revolt of 2 years in Egypt 
130 CE – Roman emperor Hadrian builds a Roman city he called "Colonia Aelia Capitolina" on the ruins of Jerusalem.
132-135 CE Hadrianic War:  Jewish General Bar Kochba's Revolt  when Jerusalem was liberated for a time, Roman emperor Hadrian rebuilt Jerusalem as a Roman colony, Aelia Capitolina and forbid Jews to approach it under pain of death.  Now Judah was renamed Palaestina by the Romans.There were about 200 towns and villages where Jews live in Beersheba-Arad Valley and 204 towns and villages in the Galilee.  580,000 Jews slain. Romans held mass executions and enslavement of Jews, destroyed Jewish towns, forbid Jews' return to Jerusalem, end of Jewish government in Judaea;
Jews were without a homeland.  This effectively turned the expatriate Jews of the Diaspora into a permanently exiled people with no national  After the rebellion failed emperor Hadrian changed the name of the province from Iudaea to "Syria Palaestina" in order to complete the dissociation between the Jewish rebels to the region.

140 CE  2nd Century CE  Seat of Sanhedrin under Rabbi Judah Ha-Nasi was Shepharam, in the Lower Galilee.  
 139  Jews expelled from Rome.  
Jews were living in Germany from 100 to 1299 CE.

From 198 to 224 CE, the Parthian Empire collapsed which was largely populated by Israelites.  The empire, located on the Silk Road trade route between the Roman Empire in the Mediterranean Basin and the Han Empire of China, became a center of trade and commerce.
                                Central Asia 200-800 CE-Epicenter of Great Migration

From 200 to 800 CE was a great migration period with Central Asia as the epicenter where Jews were leaving and going into Europe.   Jews were found settling in Germany in the early 5th century which would be as early as the 400s CE and continuing to arrive there through the 10th century of 900s.  On 640, 721 and 873 Jews in the Byzantine Empire were forcibly converted to Christianity.  This was the Greek speaking Roman Empire with headquarters in Constantinople alias Istanbul.  It was later a part of the Ottoman Empire. 

278-338 Abbaye, Nahmani ben Kaylil/Nahmani, Babylonian Amora, Talmud scholar, wine dealer,
279-320 Abbahu, Palestinian Jewish Amora, head of rabbinic academy in Caesarea, leading rabbi, knew Greek language
300  3 million Jews in world
312   Constantine became emperor of the Western Roman Empire, a great change came to the whole empire that affected Jerusalem profoundly-Christianity now a religion. 

324  Queen Helena, a devout Christian, wife of Eastern Roman Emperor Constantius and mother of Constantine the Great, departs for the Holy Land and begins the construction of churches.
335-427 Ashi, editor of the Babylonian Talmud, headed the academy of Sura which he re-established at Mata Mehasya.  which is in "Sasanian Babylonia."
A decree of the emperors Theodosius II and Valentinian III, addressed to Amatius, prefect of Gaul (Gaul (LatinGallia) was a region of Western Europe during the Iron Age and Roman era, encompassing present day France,LuxembourgBelgium, most of Switzerland, parts of Northern Italy, as well as the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine

  • 351–352 – Jewish revolt against Gallus: the Jewish community began a rebellion in the region of Palestine against theCaesar of the Byzantine (Eastern Roman) Emperor Constantius Gallus. The revolt was quickly subdued by Gallus' general Ursicinus.
  • 362 – Roman emperor Julian the Apostate ordered Alypius of Antioch to rebuild the Jewish Temple.
  • 363 – The severe Galilee earthquake of 363 occurred. The earthquake resulted in, among other things, a halt in the construction of the Jewish Temple, mainly because the earthquake ruined the early stages of the construction. Eventually the plan to rebuild the Temple was completely dropped after the death of emperor Julian in June 363.
425 , prohibited Jews and pagans from practicing law and from holding public offices ("militandi"), in order that Christians should not be in subjection to them, and thus be incited to change their faith. 

465  the Church took official cognizance of the Jews. Jews were found in Marseille in the sixth century

  570-632 Mohammad, started Islam, Jewish tribes were living in Medina, Arabia, converted many Jews.  

               many Jews forcefully.
614 Persians took Jerusalem 
628 Jerusalem  Byzantine ruled Jerusalem with emperor Heraclius,.Jewish expulsion from Jerusalem
630 -632 Byzantine emperor Heraclius decreed that all Jews in empire must convert to Christianity.
638 Jerusalem Caliph Omar set up in Temple esplanade place of Muslim prayer
Jews are permitted to return to the city after 568 years of Roman and Byzantine rule.

From 652 to 1016 CE the kingdom of Khazaria in the Caucasus Mountains thrived with King Bulan converting himself and his family of about 2,000 to Judaism after listening to the speeches of a Jew, a Christian and a Muslim tell him about their belief.  He chose the Jewish religion to replace his pagan one.  Khazaria was a refuge for many Jews who left more oppressive lands towards Jews.  So it was a mixture of religions sitting on the Silk Road and involved in much trading. 

691 Dome of the Rock built by Muslim Umayyad caliph Abd-elMalik, now Jews allowed to return to Jerusalem.  
700 Jews were living in Lithuania. "Lithuanian Jews or Litvaks are Jews with roots in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania: (present-day LithuaniaBelarus,UkraineLatvia and the northeastern Suwałki region of Poland). 
722-723 Escaped from Byzantine Empire from Emperor Leo III, who forced Jews to adopt Christianity

742 to 814 CE:   Jews lived under Charlemagne who was crowned king of the Franks and of Italy in 768.     Aaron (Abu Aharon) Ben Samuel, Mystic and wonder-worker, left Baghdad about 870 and wandered through Italy, teaching Kabbalistic lore.  Pupil was Moses ben Kalonymos of Lucca, Italy who carried his teachings to Germany, regarded as father of Kabbalistic study in Europe. 
749 – The Seventh Earthquake: Another powerful earthquake is recorded in the Jordan Rift Valley. The cities of TiberiasBeit She'anHippos and Pella were largely destroyed while many other cities throughout the Jordan Rift Valley region were heavily damaged. In addition, the earthquake reportedly claimed tens of thousands of victims.

800s Lyons, France, Jewish settlement to Roman times, Agobard and Amulo, bishops of Lyons claimed that the Jews were excessively privileged by the king and that the market-day had been changed from Saturday to suit their convenience.    Both the French and German monarchies considered their kingdoms to be descendants of Charlemagne's empire.  From the 700s under the protection of Charlemagne and his house, Jewish merchants began to settle in France for purposes of trade, importing foreign luxuries and establishing new communities up the Rhone Valley and into Champagne.  By the 9th century,  southern France was the main center of the activity of the international traders, the Radanites.  

860  Forced conversion of Byzantine Jews by Emperor Basil I -end of century Jews couldn't hold public office, intermarry with Christians or own Christian slaves, forced to read bible in Greek and not in Hebrew, not to convert Christians on pain of death and property would be taken, couldn't testify for Christians during legal proceedings or build new synagogues-forcing the inferior status of byzantine Jews in comparison to Orthodox Christians. 
870 Aaron (Abu Aaron ) Ben Samuel; left Baghdad, pupil of Moses ben Kalonymos of Lucca, Italy, taught in Germany, father of Kabbalistic study in Europe
900 Jew living in Vienna, Austria, center for their scholarship

  • 905 – The Abbasids reconquered the region.

932  Byzantine emperor Romanus I Lecapenus persecuted Jews, tried to convert them to Christianity, so murdered hundreds of Jews and destroyed many synagogues.  Jews migrated to Khazaria from Muslim and Byzantine lands, Joseph , king of Khazars welcomed them to settle in Khazaria.  

  • 970 – The Fatimids, a self-proclaimed Shia caliphate, took control and appointed a Jewish governor.

1000s  Jew Street in Aachen, Germany so named. (Syria also has a Jew Street in Damascus). 
 Fatimids of 11th century built a 2nd mosque, El-Aksa, on Temple site.  
1017-1060 Ahimaaz ben Paltiel, southern Italian chronicler, has scroll of descent, a family tree of 2 centuries of family in Italy.  Then came to Italy in 800s.  

1034: First synagogue erected in Worms, Germany (oldest city in Germany)  established by the Celts, "Worms also played prominently into the Protestant Reformation in the early sixteenth century, the site of Martin Luther's stand before the 1521 Diet of Worms, and also the birthplace of the first Bibles of the Reformation, German and English."
1040:  Abiathar Ben Elijah Ha-Cohen, died in 1109, last Gaon in Eretz Yisrael.  Exiled after violent quarrel with Egyptian exilarch David ben Daniel.  work found in Cairo genizah, left at the time of the 1st Crusade, transferring the seat of the Gaonate to Syria.  

(Feb 22, 1040-1105) b: in Troyes, France;  This was the seat of Rashi  and the Tosaphists.  Jews were being excluded from trade and handicrafts which drove them more and more into money-lending which in Northern France became their economic stand-by.  Rashi studied in the Rhineland which was Germany.  He died in Troyes, Champagne, France.  He earned his livelihood with his vineyard.  He was author of well known concise commentary on the bible.  He had 3 daughters; Jochaved, Miriam,  and Rachel.  
1060 Itzhak Tzarfarti died in Worms, Germany
1077 Selljuk Turks took over Palestine 
1096 to 1254 CE  started the first of 7 Christian Crusades.  Jews suffered during the Crusades in Eretz Yisrael and in Europe as well. 800 Jews murdered by crusaders and local mob.  
1099 Godfrey of Bouillon stormed Jerusalem as Crusader and it became the capital of the Latin Kingdom.   Jewish community in Jerusalem massacred by the Crusaders.  Jews and Muslims fought together against Crusaders. "Godfrey of Bouillon, elected Lord of Jerusalem"
1100-1118 Baldwin I Lord of Jerusalem-Christian
1110-1165  Maimon Ben Joseph, scholar, father of Maimonides, of Cordova, Spain, author of an Arabic commentary on the Bible, left Spain in 1148 because of persecution, went to Fez, Egypt and wrote a book upholding the faith of those Jews who were forced to convert to Islam.  Settled in Egypt.  
1118-1131 Baldwin II Lord of Jerusalem
1121:  300 Jews from France and England made aliyah to Palestine
1131-1143 Count Fulk Lord of Jerusalem
1143-1162 Baldwin III Lord of Jerusalem
1145: Abraham Ibn Ezra lived in Mantua, Italy, formerly capital of a duchy.  May have only had a few families then.  
1146- Jews of Spain forcibly converted to Christianity.  Jews were massacred in European towns by marauding Crusaders.     In this 11th-12th century era, the Jewish communities of Northern France were the most densely settled in Europe--if not in the world.  The Talmud was the main branch of study.  
1160 -1238  Eleazar ben Judah of Worms, (Eleazar Ben Judah Ben Kalonymos), alias Rabbi of Worms and Eleazar Rokea, born in Mainz, Franconia, Germany, died in Worms, Germany, Rabbi, mystic, Talmudist, codifier, wrote "book of the Pious", part of eminent Kalonymos family which gave medieval Germany many spiritual leaders and mystics, Kabbalist. 
1161 Jews in Granada, Spain, narrative of being Jews from tribes of Judah and Benjamin in Judaea.
1162-1174 Amalric Lord of Jerusalem, Crusader
1170 Middle Ages:  Benjamin of Tudelea said there were 1,049,565 Jews of which 100,000 lived in Persia and India, 100,000 in Arabia and 300,000 in the East he hadn't seen.  (500,000 in visited countries)=total 740,000
1174-1182 Baldwin IV Lord of Jerusalem 
1175 Rashi Synagogue in Worms, Germany built
1182 Jews expulsed from royal dominions of France. 
1182-1186 Baldwin V Lord of Jerusalem, died at age 9-a child.  
1185 Aaron of Lincoln died, was an English financier, extended business to 25 English counties, many of nobility, property was confiscated by the Crown, took his money that was owed to him.  
1187 Ayyubid sultan Saladin retook Jerusalem for Islam, remaining in Muslim hands except for a  few years in 13th century.  
1200 1 million Jews in world, had lost 2 million
1200-1300  Aaron Ben Jacob Ha-Cohen, French talmudist, expulsed from France in 1306 with other Jews, went to Majorca, finished Jewish laws list there.  
Aaron Ben Joseph Ha-Levi, Spanish talmudic authority, studied under Nahmanides in Barcelona, Spain, famous teacher.  
1214-1414  a DNA bottleneck shows that Ashkenazis all come from only 350 Jews during this period.  Report earlier was that Jews came from only 4 women of different periods.  
1240s  Jews of Kiev, Ukraine  disrupted by the Mongol invasion, many escaped to other                                     regions, may have eventually returned

1267:  Nahmanides made aliyah to Palestine
1283-April 19 during PassoverJews murdered in Mainz-ritual blood libel accusations
1285-Oct. 23, 68 Jews murdered and 180 burned in synagogue -blood libel
1283-1287 Anti-Jewish riots from the Rhine, Germany, Jewish families emigrated to Israel
1290: Expulsion of 16,000 Jews from England.  

1306 Expulsion of the 100,000 Jews from France.
1300s to 1400s Mameluke Period, new building were erected, water supply improved.  
1322 Another expulsion of Jews from France
1349-60 Jews expelled from Hungary
1346 to 1353 Jew were accused of well poisoning during the Black Death period  which led to mass slaughter of German Jews and they fled in large numbers then to Poland.  
1355: 12,000 Jews massacred by the mob in Toledo, Spain.  
1391: Jews of Spain again forcibly converted to Christianity. 
1394 Another expulsion of Jews from France
1420 Jewish community destroyed in Toulouse, France
1421: Jews expelled from Austria
1484  Professing Jews were excluded from Andalusia 
1488:  Obadiah of Bertinoro made aliyah to Palestine
1492: Spanish Inquisition:  Expulsion of 180,000 -200,000 Jews from Spain, 50,000 converted                 to  Christianity who remain in Spain.  Pious immigrants from many lands returned to                   an almost extinct Jewish population in Judea.  , numbers were artificially restricted by                  the government.  Also expulsed from Sicily and Sardinia (Spanish possessions)
1495: Jews expelled from Lithuania
           Jews expelled from Grodno, Belarus
1497: Jews expelled from Sicily and Sardinia and Portugal, forced conversion otherwise.  
1498  Jews expulsed from Navarre
1502: All Jews  of Rhodes forcibly converted, expelled or taken into slavery
1503  Jews from Grodno, Belarus returned, spared from the Khmelnytsky massacres               in 1648.
1500's    Four Jewish communities left:  Frankfurt 2,000;  Worms 1,400;  Prague 10,000;        Vienna  3,000.  

1510 -1573  Solomon Ben Jehiel Luria, alias Maharshal, rabbi and codifier in Lithuania and Poland, finally in Lublin; 
1512 or 1525-1609 Jews expulsed from Provence,  Rabbi Jehuda Loew Ben Bezalel  "Maharal of Prague, Czechoslovakia/ Worms, Germany; genealogies trace him to Rashi; created the Golem.  Maharal was chief Rabbi of Prague (Moraynu HaReav Judah LOEW ben B'zalel.
1516-1918 Ottoman Empire controlled Palestine
1517 Hebron pogrom.
1541 Jews expelled from kingdom of Naples.
1564:  Joseph Nasi from Italy made aliyah with his group
1534-1572 Isaac Ben Solomon Luria, alias "Ashkenazi,"   Judean kabbalist, born in Jerusalem, educated in Egypt, lived in Safed from 1570 , lived ascetic life, saintly character, identified ancient graves in Galilee, teacher
1541:  Jews expelled from the Kingdom of Naples.
1555  Aboab, family of Spanish origin, scholar and writer, born of Marrano parents, emigrated to Italy, reverted back to Judaism.
1569 Jews expelled from smaller centers of papal dominions in Italy and France.
1604-1657 Manasseh ben Israel, Dutch rabbi, born of Marrano parentage as Manoel Dias Soeiro, went to Amsterdam as child, was child prodigy, 18 years old became rabbi.  
1625  Jewish population in Judea brutally despoiled by the local pasha Muhammad ibn Farukh.
1630 -1703  Samuel Oppenheimer/Oppenheim, philanthropist and Court Jew, the first to settle in Vienna, Austria after the 1670 expulsion, was King Leopold the First's  agent and financier; helping to finance his wars with Turks and War of the Spanish succession; in 1697 was accused of conspiring to murder his rival and great friend, Samson Wertheimer and imprisoned until vindicated.  Liberally supported poor, Jewish scholars, and Judah Hasid's movement to settle in Palestine.   Jewish Ghetto in 1630.  
1635-1683   Abraham Abele of Gombin, Polish talmudist and rabbi of Kalish.                              
1645 Rabbi  David Ashkenazy died, who was the Rabbi in Lemberg, Poland.  Ancestor of the Gaon of Vilna.    
1648-56:  100,000 Jews murdered in the Chmielnicki massacres in Poland


                    Rabbi Samson Wertheimer of which my family shares a few genes, or his brother, Moses.

1658- 1724   Rabbi Samson Wertheimer lived and died  in Vienna, Austria, but was born in Worms, Germany, King Leopold 's finance-Minister, entrusted with the financial secrets of the country, supplied much of the war material for the army with Spain.  Fought against those who told malicious lies about the Jewish people.   
c1660-c1746 Rabbi Yehiel Heilprin in Minsk, Russia.  Talmud scholar, Kabbalah, chief Rabbi of Minsk.  

  • 1660 – The towns of Safed and nearby Tiberias, with substantial Jewish communities, were destroyed in the turmoil, following the 1658 death of Mulhim Ma'n, with only Safed being repopulated shortly after the destruction. Some sources place the destruction of Safed in 1662.
  • 1663-5 – Sabbatai Zevi, founder of the Sabbateans, preaches in Jerusalem before travelling back to his native Smyrna where he proclaimed himself the Messiah

1664-1736  David Oppenheim/Oppenheimer, Rabbi and bibliophiole, nephew of Samuel Oppenheimer, born in Worms, Germany, Rabbi in Nikolsburg and from 1702 in Prague, had library of books, kept them in Hanover because of censorship in Prague.  
1685Hirsch Rothschild zur hinteren Pfanne died in Germany.  
1698  Joseph Ben Issachar Susskind Oppenheimer; endeavored to consolidate the duchy's finances and free its ruler from dependence on grants from the estates which aroused much opposition and after the duke died in 1737, he was accused of embezzling state finances hanged in Stuttgart for having sexual relations with Christian women, refused baptism; in novel Jew Suss by Lion Feuchtwanger.  
1700-1760 Baal Shem Tov, Israel Ben Eliezer, founder of Hasidism; 
European Jews numbered 1,360,000
1700: 1 million Jews in world,  hasn't changed since 1200.  

1700   1,500 Jews from eastern Europe made aliyah to Palestine via Rabbi Judah Hasid's call.  

1707 -1747, Italian Jewish Kabbalist and poet born and educated in  Padua, Italy thought of himself as forerunner of Messiah,  dabbled in the esoteric, mystical austerities. 
                                                             Gaon of Vilna, Lithuania 

1720 -1797   Rabbi Eliyahu ben Solomon, Gaon of Vilna
1727,  1739, 1742, 1747:  Jews expelled from Little Russia, 
1730   Iones "Jonah" Goldfus, Telsiai, Kaunas, Lithuania
1754-1800:  Solomon Maimon, philosopher, son of Lithuanian village inn-keeper, child prodigy, married at 14, father at 15, taught himself German, age 25 left for Germany, became a 
wandering begger.  went to Berlin, wrote, philosopher
1758  Rabbi Shlomo-Zalman  of Vilna died.  His wife was Treina and they were the parents of the Gaon of Vilna, Lithuania.  

1764  By 1764 there were about 750,000 Jews in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. The worldwide Jewish population (comprising the Middle East and the rest of Europe) was estimated at1.2 million.
1772 Poland-Lithuanian Commonwealth Jews =308,500.  World Jewish population=1,000,000. 
1780:  Jewish community organized in Manchester, England.  
1786:  Jewish Population: Prague=7,951;  
1790's Hasidim and followers of Vilna Gaon made aliyah to Palestine

19th Century:  2,000 European Jews converted to Christianity every year this century=222,000.    
 1800   2.5 million Jews in world
1800s  Samauel David Luzzatto, Italian scholar, professor at Padua Rabbinical College, Hebrew                             literature scholar.  Europeans returned brought about population revival going from 
                  3,000 Jews in 1838 to  50,000 Jews in 1910.  Abraham Ben Alexander Katz of Kalisk, died 
1809:President Reuven  Rivlin ancestor made aliyah to Jerusalem 
1810, Hasidic rabbi, studied under Elijah of Vilna , later joined Hasidic movement.  
1811:  Jewish Population:  Frankfurt=2,214
1825  3.25 million Jews in world

1838:  Entire Jewish community in Meshed, Persia, forcibly converted to Islam
1840  4.5 million Jews in world
1840  Damascus, Syria Blood Libel of Jews ; Jews of southern Russia lived 13 to a house
1843 Jewish Population:  Prague=5,646
1850: Madison, Wisconsin, USA had 17 Jewish families from Central europe living there.  They founded Congregation Shaare Shomayim in 1959.  
1850-1880:  20,000-30,000 Jews settled in Palestine
1855  New quarters built outside the Old City wall by Sir Moses Montefiore.
1856 Reform synagogue in Manchester, England built. 
1860 – The first Jewish neighborhood (Mishkenot Sha'ananim) is built outside the walls of the Old City of Jerusalem 

  • 1874 – Jerusalem becomes a Mutesarrifiyyet gaining a special administrative status.
1880  7.7 million Jews in world, 1st Aliyah from Russia to Palestine
1881:  End of 19th Century:  World population of Jews=6,200,000 of which Sephardic only 314,000.   
1882-1890:  750,000 Jews living in Russia forced to re-settle in the Pale of Settlement.
                  Jerusalem was connected with Jaffa by a railway line; Aaron Aaronson, Romanian taken           to Palestine , founder of Zikhron Yaakov, studied agronomy in France, worked in Metullah ,       was leader, advisor to Turkish commander Jemal Pasha, oranized underground intelligence service NILI.  
1882–1903 – The First Aliyah took place in which 25,000-35,000 Jewish immigrants immigrated to Ottoman Syria (Palestine). 
1890 Persecutions in Russia sent thousands of Russian Jews to Palestine.  
1891:  Jews expelled from Moscow and St. Petersburg, Russia
1893  Zionism as a word coined by Nathan birnbaum
1894 Dryfus Affair-French Jewish Captain, anti-Semitic accusation of treason
1897 first Zionist Congress with Theodor Herzl, 29–31 August 1897 –   held in BaselSwitzerland, in which the World Zionist Organization was founded 
1898  Herzl greeted German emperor William II who visited Jerusalem.
1900  10.7 million Jews in world
1904-1905:  World Population of Jews=10,932,777.  

1913 Zionist meeting with Arabs in Cairo; June-1st Arab Congress in Paris1914-1917  World War I  population fell to 50,000, occupied by General Allenby, head of British                       army, British rule under Mandate, period of rapid growth.  
1914  August 1, Germany declared war on Russia,  Hebrew calendar was 9th of Av, day of mourning for Jews as Temple was destroyed on this date, Jewish national day of mourning. Stanley Goldfoot born in South Africa, lived there till age 18.  90,000 Jews living in Palestine.  
16 May 1916 – Britain and France conclude the secret Sykes-Picot Agreement, which defines their respective spheres of influence and control in Western Asia after the expected demise of the Ottoman Empire at the end of World War I.
1917:  50,000 Jews living in Palestine, Nov 2nd Balfour Declaration
1919, June 28th Versialles Peace Meeting with Faisal, Arab Delegation with Weizmann
1919, June 28th to 1945, May 14-League of Nations Mandate (30 years) on Jewish Homeland
1921, April 11, Transjordan given to Abdullah I, Hashemite-Jordan
1922 Balfour Doctrine, USA Congress adopted, June-White Paper from Churchill
1923:  Norman Mailer US novelist of WWII, The Naked and the Dead.  
1925  14.9 million Jews in world 
1929 Riots in Palestine, Arabs against Jews instigated by Sherif of Jerusalem Haj Amin al-Husseini
1931:  190,000 Jews living in Palestine
1933  Stanley Goldfoot immigrated from South Africa to Palestine
1936-1938:   53,000 Jews immigrated to Palestine
1938:  Kristallnacht in Worms, Germany, Jewish quarter destroyed.
1939  16.7 million Jews in world, May-White Papear, restricting Jews, September-to 1945, August 14th, World War II
1939-1945:  Holocaust; murder of 6 million Jews by Nazis and European collaborators
1941:  Jewish community in Baghdad, Iraq attacked by mobs; 180 dead
1946  10.8 million Jews in world (6 million massacred in Holocaust) 
1947-29 Nov to 1949 Israel War of Independence1948 to today persecution of Jewish communities in Arab countries, mass expulsions 
1945, August, surviving Jews put in Detention Camps, not allowed into Palestine
1947-to 1948, May 14th Establishing State of Israel.  650,000 Jews. 
1948  Israel's Arab population 126,000
1948-1967 Judea/Samaria ruled by Jordan who annexed it in 1950
1956, 29 October to 5th November The Sinai War 1962  13.0 million Jews in world
1967, 6 to 11th of June THE SIX DAY WAR
1968-1970 War of Attrition
1972 Israel's Arab population 458,500 
1972 Judea and Samarian Arab population 640,600, 388,600 in Gaza Strip and north Sinai, 8,000 in Golan Heights (Druzes)
1973, October 6-26th, YOM KIPPUR WAR  640,600 Muslim Arabs living in Judea/Samaria from British Mandate 
1975  14.2 million Jews in world
1982 June 6 to June 1985   Lebanon War  
1987 December to 1993 First Intifada (fighting) 
1993 Oslo Accords1990: Madison, Wisconsin, USA had 4,500 Jews with 3 synagogues.  
2000 to 2005, 2nd intifada 
2006 2nd Lebanon War 2012  Ariel, Judea/Samaria  Jewish population 18,638
2008 Dec 27, Operation Cast Lead-Gaza War 
2013  Judea-Samaria Jewish population now 375,000
2013, since the start of the second Intifada, 1,227 people have been killed by Palestinian terrorism and 8,549 were wounded.
2014  Israel has 6 million Jews; 330,000 live in neighborhoods of Jerusalem; Judea/Samaria has     blocks with 5 villages,towns in Northern Samaria=2,646; 11 vt.of Ariel-Elkana Block=52,000; 4 vt. of Magleh Adumem Block=46,458; 4 vt. of Eastern Etzion = 5,492; 17vt.of Samaria which Itamar is=31.212; 1city of Betar Illit=47,311; 3vt of Kiryat Sefer Block=65,004; 27vt of Jordan Valley=7,432; 9vt of Gush Etzion=22,479; 16vt of Hevron Hill=15,851; 26vt of Binyamin Region=76,794.  
2015 September to January 2016 , Intifada of Wave of Terror over Temple Mount in Jerusalem
2016, November, Israel population now with 6,377,000 Jews (74.8%) with 1,7711,000 Arabs, 374,000          Others. 
 2000 to 2016  1,315 people have been killed by Palestinian violence and terrorism since September 2000.
May 14, 2018  Under USA President Trump, US Embassy moved from Tel Aviv to Jerusalem.  Palestinians demonstrating at fence becoming violent, burning Israel's fields, etc. 

:,_Germany  Excellent Excellent!!!
After the destruction of the Second Temple in 70 CE, Rabban Yochanan Ben Zakkai moved the Sanhedrin to Yavne. Some scholars believe the so-called Council of Yavne met there. The Sanhedrin left Yavne forUsha in 80 CE and returned in 116 CE.
The Source by James Mitchener
The New Standard Jewish Encyclopedia
Facts About Israel, division of Information, Ministry for Foreign Affairs, Jerusalem
Jewish Encyclopedia (1906)
Killing Jesus by Bill O'Reilly & Martin Dugard
The Settlers by Meyer Levin; simon and Schuster Publishers, 1972
The Jews of Khazaria by Kevin Alan Brook
Updated 11/3/14 Historical Jewish Population comparisons, 
Updated 12/18/16 on Kings of Israel, Judah, etc. 
*****Excellent Video on youtube:  The Mystery of the Jews, tells about life after 70CE and the Academys that took over, Sanhedrin that was established, etc. 
Finding Our Father, a guidebook to Jewish genealogy by Dan Rottenberg


  1. 1948 BCE Abraham born
    1948 CE Establishing State of Israel

    aren't those numbers striking?

    born and reborn. a true Bible concept :)

  2. They certainly are! Prophetic. It's beyond coincidence.