|Vienna's Imperial Palace|
The first Jewish settlers came most likely with the Roman soldiers as their slave workers, most likely before 70 CE when the Romans were controlling Jerusalem.
|Travel from Vienna, Austria to Athens, Greece|
By 1238, Emperor Frederick II granted a charter to the Jews of Vienna and took them under his protection. Six years later in 1244, Duke Frederick the Quarrelsome gave the Jews a new charter called Privilegium Fredericianum or the privileges from Frederic, which served as a model for others to copy.
The period from the 13th to the 15th centuries were bad, however, marked by terrible persecutions being the worst in 1420 when there was a charge against a Jew of ritual murder-usually saying that a Jew had killed someone to use their blood in making matzos. All of the Jews were either burned, expelled or forcibly baptized-the Wiener Gezerah.
|1667 Empress Margaret Theresa of Spain, then AustriaMargarete Theresia; 12 July 1651 – 12 March 1673) was Holy Roman Empress, German Queen, Archduchess consort of Austria, Queen consort of Hungary and Bohemia. She was the daughter of King Philip IV of Spain and his second wife Mariana of Austria.|
By the next century, Jews were living in Austria again but still suffering from the hostility of Maria Theresa. In 1782, her successor, Joseph II wrote out the Edict of Toleration, which was written so as to enforce emancipation and hasten assimilation of the Jews, but they didn't receive full rights.
| Austria-Hungary consisted of two monarchies (Austria and Hungary), and one autonomous region: Croatia–Slavoniaunder the Hungarian crown, which negotiated its own compromise(Nagodba) with Hungary, in 1868.|
It was ruled by the House of Habsburg, and constituted the last phase in the constitutional evolution of the Habsburg Monarchy. Following the 1867 reforms, the Austrian and the Hungarian states were co-equal.
|Jewish Quarter in 1860 in Vienna|
|Found in Vienna were these ancient Jewish tombstones that were hidden from view. The cemetery dates back to the 16th century and had about 900 tombstones until 1938, when the Nazis came to power and gave vandals free reign to deface and destroy them.|
By 1990 there were 12,000 Jews living in Austria of which 11,000 were in Vienna, the capital. The core Jewish population of Austria in 2014 was 9,000. It was dropping. Surprisingly, in Germany it was 118,000. Hungary had 47,900. Ukraine had 63,000.
Resource: The New Standard Jewish Encyclopedia