Monday, January 30, 2017

Between Palestinian Arabs and Israel-The Most Asymmetrical Conflict

Nadene Goldfoot        
Prime Minister-Golda Meir, 1969-1974
                             
Golda Meir;  born Golda Mabovitz (גולדה מאיר‎; 3 May 1898 – 8 December 1978), was an Israeli politician and one of the founders of the State of Israel. She served as Minister of Labor, Foreign Minister, and as the fourth Prime Minister of Israel after the 1967 War and during the 1973 War.
                                                                     
                                                            
             The Shrine of the Book, a wing of the Israel Museum in Jerusalem, is built to symbolize the scroll. The shrine is built as a white dome symbolizing the Sons of Light, and a black basalt wall symbolizing the Sons of Darkness.
This isn't an even fight.  It's top-heavy with a quest that is dark on one side and light on the other side; a War  between sons of light against sons of darkness;   talked about in the Qumran scrolls;  " a battle between the Sons of Light, consisting of the sons of Levi, the sons of Judah, and the sons of Benjamin, and the exiled of the desert, against Edom,  Moab, the sons of Ammon, the Amalekites, and Philistia and their allies the Kittim of Asshur (referred to collectively as the army of Belial), and [those who assist them from among the wicked] who "violate the covenant."  Oh yes, this sounds so familiar.  We know history often repeats.  It's the exact position we are in today, for the sons of Levi, Judah, Benjamin are the Jews.  The others, well, they do sound like the rest of the Middle East, don't they.   

Most fights or wars are on an equal footing.  This one has never been symmetrical.  It's been a gang affair against the one.  Let me explain:  

  In the beginning, all the Middle East reacted violently when Israel was established by the UN; a teeny little Jewish state among vast Muslim states.  600,000 Jews against millions of Arabs
Arab Position

1. Attacks:  
      A.  On the Borders:  Terrorist acts were designed to disrupt normal life in Israel, following a policy of attrition.
       B.  On the Seas:  Blockade by Egypt;  Closed the Suez Canal to all movement of Israeli shipping, and the Tiran Straits at the entrance to the Gulf of Eilat to all movement of vessels to or from Israel. 

2. Military Level:   Pursued a policy of unceasing build-up designed to carry that aim into effect.  

3. Political Level:  Constantly sought to bring about Israel's isolation in the family of nations (United Nations). 

4. Economic Level:  Pursuing a policy of boycott against Israel.  BDS continuing to this day.  

5. Propaganda Level:  Pursuing a systematic policy of instigating hatred of Israel distorting Israel's image by anti-Semitic stereotypes and by educating the young generation to a struggle whose objective is the destruction of Israel.  

Israel Position

1. A Quest for peace, the permanent part of the policy of  EVERY GOVERNMENT OF ISRAEL.

2. This ancient people's  great need for their own state after 2,000 years of wanderings, stateless and not being accepted wholesale by the family of nations.  

3. Facing extinction by the Nazis because of their religion and economic successes.

4. Fulfilling The Balfour Doctrine only to be attacked nevertheless by the people they wished to be at peace with.  

5.  No alternative but to remain in Israel:  
     A. We have always said that in our war with the Arabs we had a secret weapon — no alternative. The Egyptians could run to Egypt, the Syrians into Syria. The only place we could run was into the sea, and before we did that we might as well fight.
  •      As quoted in LIFE magazine (3 October 1969), p. 32, Golda Meier.  
  •    B. We don’t thrive on military acts. We do them because we have to, and thank God we are efficient.
    • Vogue (July 1969) Golda Meier

Golda Meier asked the question:  
"There were no such thing as Palestinians. When was there an independent Palestinian people with a Palestinian state? It was either southern Syria before the First World War, and then it was a Palestine including Jordan. It was not as though there was a Palestinian people in Palestine considering itself as a Palestinian people and we came and threw them out and took their country away from them. They did not exist..  
  • As quoted in Sunday Times (15 June 1969), also in The Washington Post (16 June 1969)

Outcome:
  Peace will come when the Arabs will love their children more than they hate us.

   I have given instructions that I be informed every time one of our soldiers is killed, even if it is in the middle of the night. When President Nasser leaves instructions that he is to be awakened in the middle of the night if an Egyptian soldier is killed, there will be peace

We owe a responsibility not only to those who are in Israel but also to those generations that are no more, to those millions who have died within our lifetime, to Jews all over the world, and to generations of Jews to come. We hate war. We do not rejoice in victories. We rejoice when a new kind of cotton is grown, and when strawberries bloom in Israel.
  • As quoted in As Good as Golda : The Warmth and Wisdom of Israel's Prime Minister (1970) edited by Israel Shenker and Mary Shenker, p. 28

When peace comes, we will perhaps in time be able to forgive the Arabs for killing our sons, but it will be harder for us to forgive them for having forced us to kill their sons.
  • Press conference in London (1969), as quoted in A Land of Our Own : An Oral Autobiography (1973) edited by Marie Syrkin, p. 242

This country exists as the fulfillment of a promise made by God Himself. It would be ridiculous to ask it to account for its legitimacy.
  • As quoted in Le Monde (15 October 1971)

I am also grateful that I live in a country whose people have learned how to go on living in a sea of hatred without hating those who want to destroy them and without abandoning their own vision of peace. To have learned this is a great art, the prescription for which is not written down anywhere. It is part of our way of life in Israel. Finally, I wish to say that from the time I came to Palestine as a young woman, we have been forced to choose between what is more dangerous and what is less dangerous for us. At times we have all been tempted to give in to various pressures and to accept proposals that might guarantee us a little quiet for a few months, or maybe even for a few years, but that could only lead us eventually into even greater peril.
  • My Life (1975), p. 459

Arab sovereignty in Jerusalem just cannot be. This city will not be divided — not half and half, not 60-40, not 75-25, nothing.
  • Time (19 February 1973)

      Resource:  Facts About Israel, 1973, published by Division of Information, Ministry for foreign affairs, Jerusalem 
https://en.wikiquote.org/wiki/Golda_Meir
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/War_of_the_Sons_of_Light_Against_the_Sons_of_Darkness

Saturday, January 28, 2017

The Balfour Declaration: The Real Facts Behind It Concerning Palestine and the Jewish Homeland

Nadene Goldfoot                                                
 
The worst war of all the centuries started on July 28, 1914 and wasn't over until November 11, 1918 that involved the whole world.  It was World War 1.  70 million men fought and out of them, 9 million died.  7 million civilians were caught in the battle and died as well.  "the Allies were 1) the Russian Empire, 2)the French Third Republic, and the 3) United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland) They fought against  the Central Powers of Germany and Austria-Hungary. "
                                                                              

"Although Italy was a member of the Triple Alliance alongside Germany and Austria-Hungary, it did not join the Central Powers, as Austria-Hungary had taken the offensive, against the terms of the alliance.  These alliances were reorganized and expanded as more nations entered the war: Italy, Japan and the United States joined the Allies, while the Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria joined the Central Powers."
                                                                   
1917 British soldier
                                                                               
Lord Balfour (1848-1930)    (enlarged view of letter at end of article).  
This year of 2017, November 2,  2017 will stand out as the 100th year anniversary of the Balfour Declaration  of 1917 from England that finally said that their government favored the establishment in Palestine of a national home for the Jewish people.  It was written to Walter Rothschild, the 2nd Baron Rothschild, leader of the Jewish community,  to give to the  Zionist Federation of Great Britain and Ireland. 
They said that to do this, they would use their best endeavors to facilitate the achievement of this object.

It makes me sad to read this because I wonder that with this wonderful aim, why did they  back out in the middle of it and favor  the Palestinians like they did.  My cousin, Stanley Goldfoot, a reporter, was put in jail in Akko/Acre  by the British in Palestine because he was Jewish, and was working for the Jews who  needed that  state badly.   

The next part of the Declaration was a warning.  It continued, "it being clearly understood that nothing shall be done which may prejudice the civil and religious rights of existing non-Jewish communities in Palestine, or the rights and political status enjoyed by Jews in any other country."

That meant that the native Muslim or Christian people of Palestine were to continue with their lives of living in peace.  Also, this declaration was not to be used as an excuse to attack Jews outside of Palestine for having their own national home once again.  
                                                                       
1929 Attacks on Jews by Arabs
Jews did not attack or harm the Arab Muslims in any way, shape or form, but the Muslim Arabs  attacked the Jews!  The Balfour Declaration did not see this coming.  Word got out to the Muslims that Jews might take over the land and the power that one person accrued,  Haj Amin al- Husseini (1893-1974) , who had been awarded the position of Sherif of Jerusalem by a Jew, Herbert Samuel,  thought he was being threatened.  He riled his fellow Muslims in Jerusalem to riot in 1929.  This went against the philosophy of Emir Feisal (1885-1933), soon to be the king of Iraq  starting in 1921 who was the oldest son of Hussein, sherif of Mecca, Saudi Arabia.  He had met with Dr. Weizmann in Transjordan in 1918 and again in Paris in 1919 where they reached an agreement on mutual aid, conditional on the implementation of British promises to the Arabs.  Later, because he was  expulsed from Syria by the French as King in 1920, and the acts by other Arabs, his acceptance of Zionism became hostile.     Husseini kept the Muslims stirred up, enough to drive some Jews out for fear of their lives.  
                                                                           
Ben on left with glasses, won the 1965 College Bowl 

 Portland, Oregon's Ben Padrow was born in 1927 in Tel Aviv.  His parents were Jews with ancestors from Poland, probably from one of the aliyot that started in 1882.  Matthew, his father, was a dentist and a pharmacist and Lea "Mimi's"  family had a small hotel in Tel Aviv.  The three immigrated to Portland, Oregon and were my neighbors.  Joan was born in 1936 and we grew up playing together.  Ben went on to become an icon in Portland as the speech instructor at Portland State, going to the 1965 College Bowl and winning  as well as was the first editor of our Jewish newspaper, the Jewish Review.   I heard stories about their lives in Palestine from Mimi.  So Jews in Palestine were promised a state but were not protected whereas the Balfour was written in such a way as to protect the Arabs and Christians, but not the Jews.  As time proceeded, Jews were kept out at the height of their need during the Holocaust while Arabs were allowed in by the very British who had been awarded the mandate to assist in creating that Jewish Homeland.     
                                                                     
What had been going on in England that caused the English government's Lord Balfour to write such a declaration?  Jews had lost their national homeland in the year 70 when the Romans, who had occupied their homeland for over the past 100 years, had burned down their sacred Temple and their city of Jerusalem that was in their state of Judah, once a part of the Empire of Israel.  They were to wait for 2,000 years to have a 2nd chance for their specially chosen homeland by G-d.  (Exodus 6:6-27) I am Hashem your G-d who takes you out from under the burdens of Egypt.  I shall bring you to the land about which I raised my hand to give it to Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob;  and I shall give it to you as a heritage--I am Hashem."  
                                                                              
Catherine II (the Great) ruled from 1762-1796)
Her Jewish policy marked by liberalism and coercion,
allowed to register in merchant and urban classes in 1780 but
permission was restricted to White Russia in 1786, beginning the creation
of the Pale of Settlement-she prevented extension of Jewish settlement and in
1795, prohibited Jewish residence in rural areas.  
It came about because Jews had been treated so badly in Russia, starting with Catherine II's reign where she made sure they stayed in the Pale of Settlement outside of Russia-the lands of Lithuania, Latvia, Poland, Ukraine, Crimea, White Russia (Belorussia) (Belarus), Bessarabia's (Moldova)  25 provinces belonging to Czarist Russia in 1791.  The Russians kept oppressive laws against them such as the "Statute Concerning the Jews" of 1835.  By 1882, they created the May Laws where Jews were excluded from rural areas inside the Pale.  As a result of all these restrictions, Jewish economic development was severely kept down.  The Pale wasn't abolished until August 1915 and legally in March 1917 close to the end of World War I.  Jews had really suffered for 126 years the degradation of not being a citizen of any land and of not being able to leave or better themselves, of taking their sons when still children into the Russian army only to be fodder on the front lines, sure to lose their lives first.  

It was so bad that Jews were sneaking illegally out of the Pale and immigrating in mass to Palestine and western Europe and the United States in the late 1880s  that continued on into about 1924.  My father-in-law's family had to pay a man to lead them out in the middle of the night with the children holding hands.   My paternal grandfather, Nathan Abraham Goldfus, left Telsiai, Lithuania for England at 21, then went on to Dublin, Ireland and finally got to Council, Idaho, and there met another Lithuanian immigrant by 1905, my soon to be grandmother, Zlata Jermulowske from Lazdijai, Lithuania .  Her city had been taken and incorporated to become Poland, Lithuania's neighbor.  Neither were able to learn to read or write in their lowly status, but they produced 2 PhD's, one Master's degree grandchildren and all the rest were college graduates, while one great grandson is a Veterinarian in the United States.  
                                                                  

Jews immigrating to Palestine were said to be making "aliyah" or going up spiritually by going to their ancient lands where G-d told them they must live.  For 2,000 years they were not able to follow this injunction from G-d himself being they had been overcome by the most inscrutable army in the world at that time, the Romans.   The creation of Christianity had placed Jews in a lowly position of being hated by those early Christians who created all their rules against Jews in Constantinople.  That and the "New Testament", especially "John," put them in disfavor to all, except those who would become followers of Mohammad after his birth and power from 570 to 632 where many Jews were able to live in a fair harmony, but  in another lower status called dhimmitude as a dhimmi.  (2nd class citizen).  

That England came up with the understanding that Jews were deserving of their own space was amazing being they had outlawed Jews from their shores in 1290 and didn't allow any back from this expulsion until 1655, is amazing.  One wonders what got into Lord Balfour.  
                                                                                                                              
Chaim  Weizmann (1874-1952)
Theodore Herzl( 1860-1904)
Lord Balfour was  Arthur James Balfour, born in 1848 and died in 1930.  He was a British statesman and philosopher.  Balfour was the head of the government with which Theodore Herzl, founder of Zionism who was a Hungarian Jewish newspaper reporter working in Paris, negotiated with from 1902 to 1903, and was later impressed by Chaim Weizmann,  Jewish chemist and Zionist leader, later 1st president of Israel.  In 1916 he was the director of the British Admiralty Chemical Laboratories.  He had invented a better type of ammunition that helped the Allies to win the war.  
                                                                       
Alfred Dreyfus (1859-1935) Brilliant French Captain on French general staff
Anti-Semitism put him on Devil's Island
          
The Jews had been going through much anti-Semitism and the Dryfus Affair in France  of 1894 was the tipping point that caused Zionism-the return back to their roots.   The Zionist philosophy started to grow  in 1897 officially.  The  French Jewish captain Dryfus  was accused of having sold secret documents to Germany and was innocent.  Being he was Jewish, he wasn't listened to and sentenced to Devil's Island.  He was found innocent in 1906.                                                                          
19th Century Pogrom in Pale of Settlement
          
The first aliyah group of about 5 aliyot  back to Palestine was in 1882 and the 5th took place in 1903.  The Russians had been attacking Jewish villages and towns in mass called Pogroms.  Perhaps you remember seeing them in the movie, "Fiddler On the Roof."  Often people were killed in them.  The 1882 aliyah was made up of 300 families and other smaller groups came from Russia.  
                                                                                      
Jewish family on Mt. Zion in Palestine

At that time 450 pioneers came from Romania, also people suffering from anti-Semitism though they were not a part of the Pale.  it was just wide-spread.  A few dozen families came from Yemen in those early days as well.  At the time, Palestine was under the Ottoman Empire rule and had been since 1517.  These Jews  founded a number of agricultural settlements.   Jews had been going back as early as right after the destruction of the 2nd Temple by the Babylonians in 538 BCE.  In 1121 some 300 Jews returned to Palestine from France and England. They knew they weren't wanted in Europe. 

Further persecutions in 1890 sent thousands of Russian Jews to Palestine.  About 25,000 had emigrated during that first aliyah.  The 2nd aliyah occurred from 1904 to 1914.  
                                                                             
Workers for the Anglo Iranian Oil company operate a derrick, Persia. Hulton
Then, something big happened that probably was the reason why the British became cold-hearted towards the Jews.  Headlines read:   "May 26, 1908: Mideast Oil DiscoveredThere Will Be Blood. 1908: A British company strikes oil in Persia (now Iran). It's the first big petroleum find in the Middle East, and it sets off a wave of exploration, extraction and exploitation that will change the region's — and the world's — history. Of course, it was an Englishman, William D'Arcy,  who discovered the oil.

"D'Arcy and Burmah reorganized their holdings in 1909 as the Anglo-Persian Oil Co. (which became the Anglo-Iranian Oil Co. in 1935, British Petroleum in 1954and BP in 2000.) Its initial public offering of stock shares sold out in 30 minutes in London. People stood five deep around the tellers' cages to buy shares in Glasgow. The race for oil accelerated throughout the Middle East."  It was in the 1890s that automobiles were being manufactured and there was a great need for oil to run them.    
                                                                 
Feisal's brother, Abdullah, who  planned to mount an attack, but Winston Churchill persuaded him not to, agreeing instead to recognize Abdullah as King of a part"-Transjordan.  He's
the ggrandfather of today's King Abdullah of Jordan.  

This hunt was interrupted by that inevitable World War which they were going to wind up as soon as possible.  They needed the Muslim troops supplied by Abdullah of Saudi Arabia  He helped, but expected a pay-off from the Brits;  land.  Of course, they broke their promise of the real-estate that was intended for the Jews and gave 80% of it to Abdullah, the Hashemite prince who also wanted land to rule.  The fact that they could not have won at all had it not been for Chaim Weizmann was forgotten about almost-and they were to get a very small sliver of that original promise. "As World War I progressed, Britain's war effort was hindered by their ineffective manufacturing of explosives.  Britain's situation suddenly changed when  chemist, Chaim Weizmann  made a breakthrough in synthesizing the needed solvent "acetone" by using a bacterial fermentation process."   It's interesting that the piece that went to the Jews was completely devoid of oil.  As usual, Jews have had to depend on their minds and their G-d, and not on what they have amassed of physical objects.  
Balfour had not written his declaration on the spur of the moment in a zeal of empathy.  
No, it came about by having many long negotiations initiated  by Chaim Weizmann, Nahum Sokolow (1860-1936) Warsaw,Polish  Zionist leader and Hebrew journalist and others AFTER the outbreak of World War I in 1914. 
                                                                                

 He acted with the support of  other Jews; such as  Viscount Herbert  Louis Samuel-(1870-1963) British statesman and philosopher who had appointed Husseini as Sherif of Jerusalem.  Samuel's memorandum to the Cabinet in 1914 concerning a British trust for the Jewish Home influenced the Balfour Declaration to be written.  Chief Rabbi J.H. Hertz, the Haham Moses Gaster and others also added their support to Weizmann.                                                                      
Weizmann and Feisal in 1918 
The Arabian Commission to the Peace Conference from January to June 1919 and its advisors. In front, Emir Feisal with, from left to right, Mohanned Rustum Bey Haidar of Baalbek, Brigadier General Nuri Pasha Said, Captain Pisani, T.E. Lawrence and Capt. Hassan Bey Kadri.Lawrence encouraged Prince Feisal to come to the Paris Peace Conference at Versailles to represent the Arab cause, and the British War Cabinet designated Lawrence to work with him. 

It wasn't until April 24, 1920 at the San Remo Conference that Britain should administer Palestine and be responsible for the implementation of the Balfour Declaration.  There was more delay and on July 24, 1922, the the Palestine Mandate was approved by the Council of the League of Nations meeting in London.  The League had discussed the draft and the final approved form of the Balfour Declaration is quoted in the preamble, thereby giving "recognition to the historical connection of the Jewish people with Palestine and to the grounds for reconstituting their national home in that country".  The Zionist Organization was recognized as the Jewish Agency as long as the Mandatory considered it appropriate.  Articles listed provided for the facilitation of Jewish immigration by mandatory Power, while ensuring the rights and status of the other sections of the community, and for encouraging settlement of the Jews on the land, including unrequired state and wastelands;  for enacting a national law to enable Jews taking up their residence in Palestine to acquire Palestine citizenship;  the recognition of English, Arabic, and Hebrew as the official languages of Palestine;  and the recognition of the holy days of the respective communities as legal days of rest.  
                                                           
1920 map cutting off 80% to create Transjordan out of Jewish Homeland

 Article 25 of the mandate delimits the borders of the country, excluding Transjordan from Palestine.  The Palestine Mandate ended on May 15, 1948, with the withdrawal of the British administration."  The mandate was to last for 30 years. 
Update: 1/29/17 It is an official doctrine from Great Britain issued November 2, 1917.  
Since it was coming from Great Britain itself, -it says in it that the British government favors the establishment of he National Home.....so it certainly passed and Britain did not have
any reason to abstain.  It was a pass or fail vote, I imagine.  

  The Declaration was approved by the British cabinet.  It was approved by other Allied government and incorporated in the Mandate in 1922.  Balfour visited the USA in the spring of 1917 and met with President Wilson, who supported the efforts of the American Zionists headed by Brandeis.  This expedited the final decision of the British government.  But-and this is the surprise, Jews in Britain headed by DL Alexander and CG Montefiore, said that the Zionist plans could endanger Jews in other countries who were not suffering from pogroms. They were protesting strongly to the creation of a state.  This opposition made the government more cautious and is why the letter was quite moderate and did not include "Providing a Jewish National Colonizing Corporation" for the resettlement and economic development of the country into the letter.  Comfortable Jews of the USA and Britain did not want to start suffering because of a Jewish state being created.  They were not involved in all that was going on in Western and Eastern Europe against the Jewish people and just didn't want to lose their position.  They were afraid.  They did have reason, of course.  As we can now look back in history, we all have suffered from anti-Semitism, but who can say whether or not it was caused by the creation of Israel?  It  had been there all along before Israel's creation was thought about as it was.  For instance, the expelling of Jews from England that I cited; the creation of USA in the beginning in the late 1600s when a small  boatload of Sephardic Jews wanted to enter "New Amsterdam" (before it was New York) and were turned down being Jews until they discovered the Jews were part owners of the business providing for them out of the Netherlands.  
 

                                                             Foreign Office,
                                                            November 2nd,1917
Dear Lord Rothschild,
                   I have much pleasure in conveying to you, on
behalf of His Majesty's Government, the following
declaration of sympathy with Jewish Zionist aspirations
which has been submitted to and approved by the Cabinet.
                   His Majesty's Government view with favour the
     establishment in Palestine of a national home for the
     Jewish people and will use their best endeavours to
     facilitate the achievement of this object it being
     clearly understood that nothing shall be done which
     may prejudice the civil and religious rights of
     existing non-Jewish communities in Palestine or the
     right and political status enjoyed by Jews in any other country.
     I should be grateful if you would bring this declaration to the knowledge of the Zionist Federation.
                                                       Yours,
                                                        Arthur James Balfour


Reference:  
The New Standard Jewish Encyclopedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_War_I
https://www.wired.com/2008/05/dayintech-0526/
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Automotive_industry_in_the_United_States
https://www.cliohistory.org/thomas-lawrence/paris/
http://myemail.constantcontact.com/World-Wars-I---II--Middle-East-History---the-STATE-OF-ISRAEL.html?soid=1108762609255&aid=VshmSaEz9PQ ***** read this! 
Tanakh, The Stone Edition (Old Testament) 


dhimmi ([ðimi]; Arabic: ذمي, meaning "protected person") refers to specific individuals living in Muslim lands, who were granted special status and safety in Islamic law in return for paying the capital tax.
Dhimmitude is a neologism borrowed from the French language and popularized as a polemical term by writer Bat Ye'or. It was formed from dhimma by analogy with servitude in order to draw an implicit comparison.

Thursday, January 26, 2017

East Jerusalem, City of David, King of Israel and the Takeover by "Palestinian Arabs"

Nadene Goldfoot                                                  
King David, of tribe of Judah, son of Jesse,  ruled from Jerusalem-1010-970 BCE
Did you know that when Jews pray, they face Jerusalem?  Jews recite the words, "Next year in Jerusalem"  every Passover ever since  70 CE when the Romans burned the Temple down and the city.
                                                                               
The Western/Wailing Wall/ Kotel Maaravi
is part of the wall that enclosed Herod's Temple (Solomon's Temple that was improved by Herod)
that is in the Old City of Jerusalem.  Jordanians kept Jews out from 1948 to 1967.  On Shavuot 1967-
200,000 Jews came out to say prayers there.  
East Jerusalem is the original site of Jerusalem, the city King David made as his capital of Israel.  It goes back to the days of David's ggggggrandfather, Abraham.  This part of Jerusalem once was called Salem ruled by Melchi-zedek, the priest of the most high god who was honored by Abraham as told in Gen.14:18-19.  Hyksos and Hittie and Hurrite once lived here and in the 15th century BCE, the city was ruled by a king who was attacked by Habriru invaders.  He asked his suzerain (big brother), the pharaoh, for help.  The Egyptians had kept a Cushite garrison.  Joshua came along with his conquest in about 1320 BCE when the then king of Jerusalem, Adoni-zedek, was defeated at Aijaon, but the city remained as an independent enclave between the tribes of Benjamin and Judah.  In the 12th century, Jebus or Jerusalem continued to be independent but with Philistine help until it was captured by David in 1010 BCE and became the capital of a united Israel as verified in II Sam.5:6-8. .  All the names of people listed have disappeared, except David's people, the Jews.  The Jebusites who survived were dealt with leniently by David who added the fortress of Zion and a House of Heroes for his guards.  He also built a tomb inside the city for himself and his family.  He had transferred the Ark of the Covenant to Jerusalem and made his capital the religious center of Israel, which it has remained with the Jewish people.  His empire had reached from the Red Sea to the Euphrates River.                                                                    
King David's son, Solomon, from 970-930 BCE, had commercial business and started heavy taxation on the people as told about in I Kings 10:27-29.  He enlarged the city by adding the Palace and the Temple, both of which are now a part of East Jerusalem.  There was a gap between his enterprises and David's which he filled in with the MILLO (filling).  Solomon's Temple changed Jerusalem into the permanent center of the Jewish religion.  
                                                                                     
The known wisdom of Solomon, shown by his decision to find the birth mother out
of 2 women who claimed to be the mother and how he did it.  
Solomon died in 920 BCE and the tribe of Judah and parts of Benjamin and Simeon, the southern tribes, would not continue to follow Jeroboam, a leader who had taken the throne.  He was from the tribe of Ephraim and had been a superintendent of forced labor during Solomon's days and later had led the revolt against the burden imposed on the people by the monarchy.  He had been stopped in his revolt so had to take refuge in Egypt.  He and King Rehoboam, Solomon's son,  met at Shechem and Rehoboam was asked  to change the system of taxation and forced labor but Rehoboam refused,  so Israel declared their independence and seceded from the Southern tribes, leaving them high and dry.  

The tribe of .Judah  followed Rehoboam, Solomon's son by Naamah, his Ammonite wife,  as the new state of Judah from 933 to 917 BCE, no longer part of Israel.    By having done this, Judah isolated itself by now not having access to the sea, having no good trade-route anymore, and was made up of just 1/3 of the land of the northern Israel.  It was poor and unimportant compared to Israel now.  For this reason Judah didn't get involved with international rivalries and led a more tranquil life.  It was able to keep their Mosaic monotheism in a pure form, which was not happening in Israel.  Their monarchy passed peacefully from father to son in the Davidic house for a long time.  

Large Jewish communities were reestablished in Jerusalem and Tiberias by the 9th century CE.  Many Jews were massacred by the Crusaders of Christianity during the 12th century, but the community rebounded in the next 2 centuries.  Large numbers of rabbis and Jewish pilgrims immigrated to Jerusalem.  By the early 19th century, more than 10,000 Jews lived in Israel.  78 years of nation-building beginning in 1870 created the Jewish state we have today.  

Jerusalem is now in the hands of the tribe of Judah, who have remained as the Jews to this day.  They were able to create the land of Israel again on May 14, 1948 after 2,000 years of being without a country, forcing their people to be at the mercy of other countries who would allow them to live in their lands for periods of time before ousting them again and again.  For instance, England expulsed all Jews in 1290 and didn't allow them back in until 1655.  Israel was created on this day through not only the League of Nations, but the United Nations.  However, they had been attacked almost on the moment of announcing their creation, and lost Jerusalem to Jordan at that time.  They gained it back in 1967 when Jordan and all the other nations attacked in a losing battle to Israel.

The United Nations had written their partition resolution of Jerusalem on November 29, 1947 which provided for the creation of an independent area of Jerusalem to be under UN administration.  However, the Arabs kept attacking which was actually regular warfare between the Haganah and the Arabs.  The Arabs had started out as local bands attacking but soon were joined by the Arab Legion of Transjordan which put an end to the internationalization scheme of the UN.  This struggle lasted from December 1947 to July 1948.  At this time, the Jewish quarter of the Old City had to be evacuated and was destroyed.   The 150,000 Jewish inhabitants were under constant military pressure.  The 2,500 Jews living in the Old City (east Jerusalem) were the victims of the Arab blockade that lasted for 5 months before they were forced to surrender on May 29, 1948.  Before the surrender and throughout the siege on Jerusalem, Jewish convoys tried to reach the city to bring in food, which by April had become a critical need.  The Arabs had attacked since December and tried to cut off the highwaying linking Tel Aviv with Jerusalem, which was the main freeway.  Arabs controlled several points including the villages of Kastel and Deir Yassin.  They were firing on the convoys of trucks with supplies.  The  Jewish fighters had banded together and were called the "Haganah".  Their commander was David Shaltiel who told the 2 other fighting bands; Lehi (leader Stanley Goldfoot) and Irgun (Menachem Begin and 100 men)  As it turned out, Irgun attacked this Deir Yassin on April 9th while Haganah fought for Kastel, which was the 1st major attack on Arabs.  They used a loud speaker to tell the people to evacuate which many did.  Others opened fire and they had a ferocious battle.  

1948, Jerusalem was divided into 2 parts.  The part belonging to Israel was all of the western and southern part of the New City including Mount Zion and an enclave on Mt. Scopus.  The city extended west by the construction of the Knesset and Government quarter with the National Museum and University campus nearby.  New housing projects were constructed.  Kiryat Yovel was the largest then.  Deceased leaders were buried on Mt. Hertzl which became a cemetery for soldiers who died during active duty.  New rabbinical centers were built.  Some factories were built here.  The city became the administrative center of the country.  Benny Morris, historian, tells us that Arab leaders encouraged their Arabs to leave Jerusalem.  The Arab national Committee in Jerusalem, following the March 8, 1948 instructions of the Arab Higher Committee, ordered women, children and the elderly in many parts of Jerusalem to leave their homes, because, as they said, "Any opposition to this order...is an obstacle to the holy war....and will hamper the operations of the fighters in these districts."  

All the New City of Jerusalem, except the Arab quarters north of the walls, fell into Jewish hands.  The Arab Legion's attack of  shelling and starving  the Jews  into surrendering didn't work.  The Jews had the fortitude to continue fighting and were able to open a Burma Road which restored their connection between the Jewish section of Jerusalem and the coast.  In 1949, the government and the Knesset were transferred to Jerusalem.  

The Six Day War of 1967 started June 5th.   Israel warned Jordan to stay out of the war, but King Hussein attacked Jerusalem.  Jordanian troops were in the Old City and Jordanian sections of the city bombarded the New City.  It took the Israel army 2 days and they took the whole city.  June 29, 1967 this city was united as one. and the barriers dividing them were removed.  It was like the Berlin Wall coming down.  There were 139,600 Muslims and a few Christians in the eastern portion of the city and now were incorporated into the total population of 493,500 as of 1990.  Winning this war came at the high price of 777 dead and 2,586 wounded, a high, high price for a state of only in 1967 with 2,383,600 Jews, 289,600 Muslims and 103,100 Christians.     At that time Jerusalem had 195,700 Jews, 54,963 Muslims and 12,646 Christians.  

The Old City's Jewish quarter has been restored which had been razed by the Jordanians.  New suburbs have been built.  The Jerusalem Law of 1980 extended Israel sovereignty over the entire city.  To Jews, the entire city of Jerusalem is sacred.  So sacred is it, only to the Jews, that Jews have prayed 3 times a day saying, "Thy city, shall we return with joy!."  They also have sworn in prayed the Psalmist's oath, "If I forget thee, O Jerusalem, let my right hand forget her cunning.!

                                                                                 
French Hill Neighborhood of almost 7,000 people, of northern East  Jerusalem.  Part of the unified city,
The UN considers it an illegal settlement.  "The international community considers Israeli settlements in East Jerusalem, such as French Hillillegal under international law, but the Israeli government disputes this with other's interpretation of international law such as Prof. Kontorovich.  "In 1969, construction began on a new residential neighborhood to create a land link between West Jerusalem and the Hebrew University on Mount Scopus, which had been an Israeli enclave in Jordanian territory before the 1967 war. The official name of the new neighborhood was Giv'at Shapira. Another section of French Hill, Tzameret HaBira, was populated mainly by American immigrants.


"In recent years, an increasing number of Arabs have been buying apartments in the neighborhood.  The neighborhood has also seen a large influx of Orthodox Jews (Haredim) in recent years. The ethnic mix is much more diverse than in most other Jewish areas in the city, partly due to the proximity of the Hebrew University and Hadassah Hospital on Mount Scopus."

                                                                           

El-Aqsa Mosque-(farthest from Mecca) built in the Temple area of Jerusalem by the
caliph abd 3l-Malik in the 8th century and opened to their followers in 705.  It was
to mark the site of the legendary flight of Mohammed from Mecca to Jerusalem.  
March 1988 and Yasir Arafat's Fatah tried to murder Secretary of State George Shultz by planting a car bomb near his Jerusalem hotel.  Then Arafat's PLO on October 8, 1990, had used   the Temple Mount tragedy at the Al Aqsa Mosque  as an excuse to encourage violence against Israelis. What had happened was during the third year of the First Intifada that was started in 1987 the rioters began after a decision by the Temple Mount Faithful, a Jewish group which Stanley Goldfoot belonged to,  to lay a cornerstone at the site, and Arab rioting continued against these  Jewish worshippers. The riots resulted in the death of over twenty Palestinians, with more than 150 people injured, including Palestinian civilians and worshippers.   It was condemned by UN Security Council. resolutions 672 and 673. 3 days later, Arafat's Fatah issued a leaflet urging Palestinians to light fires, stab with knives and destroy everything that could be destroyed. 

 The worst attack by the PLO was on October 21, 1990 when 3 Israelis were knifed to death on a Jerusalem street.  Over a 12 attacks happened for 6 weeks after that.  Earlier in April 1990, 20 Jewish families  moved into a building in the Christian Quarter of Jerusalem, called St. John's Hospice which was near the Church of the Holy Sepulchre.  The reason was a business deal that had occurred.  An Armenian businessman sold the building, which was not a church or a holy place, to the Jewish families.  Then the PLO-backed leadership of the intifada issued an order to kill the Armenian businessman.  The International Christian Embassy in Jerusalem  stood up for the sale. They said they believed that the citizens should be able to live anywhere they chose.  To deny Jews the right to live anywhere in Jerusalem, it declared, was "absurd."  

By December 1991, the UN started to show its anti-Israel attitude towards the state.  The General Assembly approved 4 new one-sided resolutions on the Middle East by on the 11th, voting 104-2 for a resolution calling for a UN-sponsored peace conference including the PLO.  Then immediately they voted 142-2 to condemn Israeli behavior toward Palestinians in the territories.  Again, on the 16 of December, the day they repealed the Zionism measure, they voted 152-1 with the USA abstaining, to call on Israel to rescind a Knesset resolution declaring Jerusalem its capital.  Another resolution demanded Israel's withdrawal from occupied territories including Jerusalem, and the right of return for Palestinians.  A repeal vote was one-sided with 13 out of `19 Arab countries-those engaged in negotiations with Israel;  Syria, Lebanon and Jordan, who voted to retain the resolution, as did  6 others and Saudi Arabia, and Egypt, which lobbied against repeal.  Thus, no Arab country voted for repeal.  The PLO denounced the vote and the US role.  By doing this, the Arabs had voted once again to ignore the birthright of the Jewish State.  
                                                                                
Theodor Kollek b: 1911 in Vienna, Austria made aliyah in 1934
and joined kibbutz En Gev.  He also worked for the Haganah, was Israel minister in
Washington 1950-1952, built up Israel's tourist industry, founded the Israel Museum.

Mayor of Jerusalem  Teddy Kollek who became mayor in 1965 said, "For 3,000 years, Jerusalem has been the center of Jewish hope and longing.  No other city has played such a dominant role in the history, culture, religion and consciousness of a people as has Jerusalem in the life of Jewry and Judaism.  Throughout centuries of exile, Jerusalem remained alive in the hearts of Jews everywhere as the focal point of Jewish history, the symbol of ancient glory, spiritual fulfillment and modern renewal.  This heart and soul of the Jewish people engenders the thought that if you want one simple word to symbolize all of Jewish history, that word would be "Jerusalem!"   Kollek made special efforts to promote Jewish-Arab cooperation in the city following the reunification of Jerusalem in 1967.  
                                                                               
1862 in Jerusalem
Since 1844, Jews have outnumbered Muslims living in Jerusalem.  
1844----7,120 Jews.......5,000 Muslims......3,390 Christians
1922-- 33,971 Jews.... 13,411 Muslims..... 4,699 Christians
1967-195,700 Jews....54,963 Muslims....12,646 Christians
1990-378,200 Jews....131,800 Muslims...14,400 Christians
The Brits at the time of  1939 and WWII, decided to let Arabs in Palestine while keeping Jews out who needed a haven desperately being they had escaped from Nazis who would kill them.  
                   
Arabs Throwing rocks in Jerusalem
                                                      
Young Arab throwing rocks at people in 1991 
The Muslim population in Jerusalem is growing at the same rate as the Orthodox Jews.  Both have the medium age of 18 and 20.  Approximately 23% of the city considers itself Charedi (Orthodox Jews) and 36% Arab. These two groups account for the reason that 51% of all of Jerusalem’s residents are considered to live in the lowest socio-economic category. All of the Arab-majority neighborhoods and 24% of the Jewish neighborhoods (basically the Charedi ones) are ranked the lowest in terms of socio-economics.
                                                                                         
This Western Wall is in East Jerusalem.  It's the only place left for Jews to pray,
and now Kerry has tried to take that away with his speech after the USA Ambassador

to the UN had abstained in 2334, thus going against Israel.  .  
Today, we were mortified when John Kerry signed resolution  2334 that takes away Israel's right to the eastern section, now unified for the past 50 years, away-according to the United Nations who have no legal authority.  Kerry just kicked out the Jews from the Temple Mount and the Western Wall, the only place Jews were allowed to be to pray there.  This move was evil, wicked and cruel by the Obama  government.  The United States had established a resolution of always having Israel's back and broke the 30 some year resolution with Kerry's move.  
                                                                              
US Embassy in Tel Aviv
The new USA President Trump has promised to move the US embassy to Jerusalem from Tel Aviv.  It is possible that 2334 will make this move harder, but Trump may figure out a way to do it.  I figure that's why Obama made this decision during his last few days in office.  He wanted to not only hurt Israel, but make life more difficult for Trump to keep such a promise that he had made but never kept.  No doubt he doesn't want to see Trump have any successes.  
                                                                           
Palestinian Arabs are making threats if Trump is successful in a move of the US embassy.  They have selected this important center of the Israelis for their attacks on the population, such as throwing stones, knifings and ramming crowds with their vehicles with intent to kill as many as possible.  
                                                                                
Temple Mount group's copy of original all gold menorah.
Today it stands in the Old city of Jerusalem.  The original was stolen by the Romans
 out of the 2nd Temple and taken to Rome, depicted on the Arch of Titus.  
Jerusalem has been referred to as "The City of David," city of righteousness, the faithful city, city of G-d, the holy city, city of truth, Ariel. In the early books of the Bible, Jerusalem was also called Jebus for the people living there before King David.  It was also called ZION for David's fortress.   In Latin it was called Hierosolyma-from Hebrew Yerushalayim.  Romans called it Aelia Capitolina.  Arabs called it El-Kuds (the Holy), and sometimes called it Beit el-Makdes (The House of Holiness).  In Hebrew it is referred also to Bet ha-Mikdash (Temple).  If we go back before David, to the Egyptian 12th Dynasty of the 19th and 18th centuries BCE, it was referred to as U/rjushamem, or in Akkadian was called Urusalim.  They had a semitic god named Shalem, part of Jerusalem.  
                                                                             
Nir Barkat was elected mayor of Jerusalem in 2008 and again in 2013.  
People have been living in the area where Jerusalem had developed from the Old Stone Age because of location.  As a city, it developed in the Early Bronze Age of 3500-2000 BCE.  It became the capital of a Canaanite city-state in the Middle-Bronze Age of 2000-1550 BCE and was the Salem of the Bible.  No one has ever loved it as the Jews have.  Today it is still the center of our Jewish religion.  
                                                               
1/27/17 (8:45am) P.S. Conclusively, the Palestinians have no legal claim to Jerusalem.  There is no way to prove that they are the descendants of a people long extinguished by the ravages of time who no longer exist as a people, let alone a person.  There is for the Jews.  Their whole history of being has been documented in the "Old Testament" which is the Jewish Tanakh consisting of  the Five Books of Moses-The Torah, Prophets, writings;  the 24 books of the Bible.  Their evidence is that Moses (1391-1271 BCE)  wrote his books over the 40 years period of wandering, and the rest were from prophets, writers, historians of the period.  The truth is it was written down along with oral history that then was put into writings.  As a teacher documents the behavior of certain children in her class for later evidence, so is the history of the Jewish people who have a language, a culture, a history which includes being a part of the Empire of Israel.  The Palestinians always had thought, as they had registered themselves, to be Syrian Palestinians.  The word "Palestine" was given to the land by the Romans by 135 CE to aggravate the Jews who they replaced by forcing them to flee from their burning city of Jerusalem.  All people living there later became Palestinians, including the Jewish people up until May 14, 1948, when the Jews were finally Israelis once more.  Israel has been in Jewish hands for the past 3,288 years with undeniable history.  Palestinians are best documented since 1984 by Joan Peters, in her well-known book, "FROM TIME IMMEMORIAL."  She was a rare journalist who had learned the art of finding facts and documentation of original proof.  Her book is the most thoroughly researched and solidly documented work on the origns of the Arab-Jewish conflict.  She did massive research and was able to turn up material from the Ottoman Empire (Turkey-who held the land for the 400 years up till the end of WWI), and reports of Western consular officers and observant travelers and other sources.  She has put PhD's to shame who have never dug into the original materials.  The reason I'm so impressed with her published material is that she started with the attitude of finding material to PROVE the Palestinian claim to the land and DID NOT FIND ANY PROOF!  

Another fact:  DNA testing shows that Jews and Arabs are not closely related.  The most remarkable thing is that they in fact are distant cousins with Jacob's son, Levi having produced the direct descendants of Aaron, Moses's brother, who was chosen to be the 1st Priest.  Thus, all his direct descendants are called Cohens who have served in the Temple and later, the synagogue with specific duties.  Many Arabs also carry the Cohen gene and should according to our documented history, for Abraham had children by Sarah, his niece, and by Hagar, her Egyptian handmaid-princess, producing Ishmael, father of the Arab people.  People closer to the Jews would be the Kurds.  Druze, Israeli Bedouins also connect.  What I'm looking at are results from Ydna and MT dna testing the autosomal facts and in that, Kurds are first in being closer.   
                         
 Yom Yerushalayim (Jerusalem Day) is the anniversary of Jerusalem's reunification in 1967.  This day begins on 28th day of the month of Iyyar in the Hebrew calendar. So this year of 2017, it starts on Tuesday evening, May 23rd and ends Wednesday evening of the 24th.   It was on June 7, 1967, one day into the Six-Day War, that Israeli forces captured the old city of Jerusalem. This year will be the big 50th year anniversary.  How wonderful it would be to have the embassy moved by then for the celebration!
update 2/6/17: d"The recent U.N. Security Council vote, facilitated by an American abstention, that condemned all Israeli building over the pre-1967 border as illegal, outraged the Israeli public. That resolution, Israelis noted bitterly, allowed for no distinction between, say, an isolated settlement on a West Bank hilltop and the ancient Jewish Quarter in Jerusalem’s Old City, which Jordan destroyed in Israel’s 1948 War of Independence and which Israel rebuilt immediately after the Six Day War." from https://www.wsj.com/articles/how-israelis-see-the-settlements-1486137717


Resource:  Myths and Facts, p. 220 for population #. 
The New Standard Jewish Encyclopedia 
http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/latest-population-statistics-for-israel
http://www.jewishpress.com/indepth/columns/firstonethrough/arabs-in-jerusalem/2016/03/07/
Movie: CAST A GIANT SHADOW with Kirk Douglas, Frank Sinatra, John Wayne, Yul Brynner, Angie Dickinson, Senta Berger about 1947-1948 in War of Independence of Israel centering on Mickey Marcus-American Aluf helping to create Israel's army.  Now in DVD.  
http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/population-of-israel-palestine-1553-present
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1990_Temple_Mount_riots
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/French_Hill
http://www.haaretz.com/israel-news/science/1.681385
http://s1.zetaboards.com/anthroscape/topic/5484194/1/
PS:  The researchers used the DNA of 1,847 Jewish men of Ashkenazi, Sephardi and Kurdish descent; Muslims and Christians of Kurdish, Turkish and Armenian descent; various Arab populations; and Russians, Poles and residents of Belarus."